A population consist of all the individuals of the same species occupying a Particular geographical area at a given time. It ranks subordinate to species. A species may have a single population or many populations confined to distinct area. The present population of our country is 102.7 billions. In the present, the population of our country is increasing. It is very dangerous and when our natural resources are going on decreasing. The main cause of high rate of growth rate is a widening gap between birth rate and death rate. The growing urban population created many problems for urban areas as well as rural areas.
In urban areas:—
1. It has led to the storage of food, raw materials and wide range of commodities.
2. It has led to pollution and environmental imbalance.
In rural areas, the urban growing population has led to
1. To decrease in the forest lands and
2. Left baneful influence on the fertility of the soil.
If we want to develop our country and want to raises the living standard of the people then we should reduced our birth rate.
Count of people of a country is called census. Census is an official numeration of population after every ten years in India, along with certain social and economic statistics. This not only helps us in knowing the total number of population but also the latest distribution of population, sex ratio, age composition, occupational structure and literacy of a particular country.
AIM OF POPULATION STUDY:—
Population education aimed at making the students aware of
1. The consequences of uncontrolled population growth;
2. The advantage of a small family norm;
3. The growth, distribution and density of population; and
4. The relation of population to the standards of life.
The scientific study of human population is called demography. It deals with three phenomena:—
1. Change in population ,i.e. growth or decline.
2. Composition of the population, i.e. age group and sex ratio.
3. Distribution of population in space.
IMPORTANCE OF POPULATION STUDY
The significance of studying population lies mainly in estimating the total manpower available for production and total amount of goods and service required for their consumption. After this, the studying of population is very useful from various points of view:
1. By studying population, even after ten years, tell us the exact number of people in our country only by knowing the number of people living in our country. We can know where we are going and what steps we should take to avoid the coming catastrophe as a result of the unrestricted rise of population.
2. We can know the distribution of population in our country and where more emphasis is to be laid for the development and uplift of the area.
3.We can know the sex ratio in our country and take proper steps for the welfare of the weaker section of the society including both woman and girl-child.
4. We can know the age composition of the people and how much burden of the dependent population (children and old people) the working population has to bear.
5.We can know as to how many people are engaged in the primary, secondary and tertiary occupation and what steps we should take to bring about a change in occupational structure of our country.
6. It is only by studying population that we can know the level of literacy in our country and think what steps we should take to remove illiteracy from our country.
7. It is only by studying the data of our population, that we can know how many adolescents (people in the age group of 10 to 19) are there in our country and what special steps we can take to bring them up so that they may prove good citizens for the country.
8. It is by only studying population that we can chalk out our National Population Policy and think of measures both for containing the rise of our population and take desired methods for its welfare.
Population density is the number of individuals per unit area or per unit volume at a given time. The distribution of human population is not uniform throughout the world only about one–third of the total land area is inhabited. Of the inhabited areas, some are thickly populated, others sparsely. This depends upon the availability of the requirements of life. About 56% of the total world population resides in Asia alone. Japan is the most thickly populated country and Australia is the most thinly populated. In India, Kerala is the most thickly populated state.
Year Population Increasing %age
1980 800000000 11.33%
1990 880000000 9.20%
2000 980000000 10.88
2006 1100000000 11.66%
CONSEQUENCES OF INCREASE IN
Increase in population density creates many problems. Per captia income and availablity of natural resources such as water, land, minerals, fuel etc. decreases. All the basic necessities of life are adversely affected. These necessities include space, food, employment, education, medical aid, sanitation and essential goods.
1. SPACE:— New towns and cities are coming up to accommodate the growing population. This has put a great strain on agriculture land and forests. Clearing of forests for habitation has caused new problems, particularly soil erosion and floods.
2. FOOD:— Large families with moderate means are unable to provide adequate and balanced diet to the children. The later suffer from malnutrition and grow into less fit members of the society.
3. EMPLOYMENT:— Rise in population has resulted in large scale unemployment. New employment schemes introduced by government have failed to absorb the fast growing numbers.
4. EDUCATION:---Increase in population has led to rush in educational institutions and to lowering of educational standards. A large family is unable to afford higher education to the children.
5. MEDICAL AID: --- Proper medical facilities are also beyond the reach of large families. State too is unable to look after the health of the ever growing population.
6. SANITATION:--- Rise in human population has caused pollution of environment/water, air and land. This is seriously affecting the human health.
7. ESSENTIAL GOODS:--Increase in population leads to shortage of essential household goods and result in hike in their prices.
The above factors have caused mental tension and rise in heart disease. Crowding leads violence. Violence often erupts at crowded music/drama concerts, sports events and in traffic jams.
FACTORS CONTROLLING POPULATION
Three kinds of factors control human population density: --geographic, socio-economic and demographic.
1. GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS:- These factors include climate, availability of natural resources and means of transportation.
1 CLIMATE: -The regions with favourable climate have a higher population density. Arctic and Antarctic regions are uninhabited by humans because they are extremely cold and unfit for agriculture. The desert areas are less populated due to hot, dry climate not conducive to agriculture. The tropical lands are well populated because their warm, moist climate is suitable for human beings as well as for agriculture.
2. AVAILABILITY OF NATURAL RESOURCES:-- the natural resources that effect population density include water, soil, fuel and minerals.
a) WATER:--Human settlements are located near sources of water. Many cities are on the banks of river and lakes.
b) SOIL (EDAPHIC FACTOR):-- The soils of river valleys are very fertile and most suitable for farming. This is the reason for high population density in the Indo-Genetics plains and Indus valley.
c) FUEL AND MINERALS:--Industrial cities have come up in localities where fuel and minerals have been found. Bokaro, Bhilai and Rourkela are some of such cities.
3. MEANS OF TRANSPORT:--Means of transport affect human population in two ways
a) They bring about redistribution and dispersal of population. People from one state migrate temporarily or permanently to other states or foreign countries for work. This practice may results in changes in population density or lead to new settlements.
b) They enable people to live in localities far away from the sites of natural resources. The latter can be made available to human population anywhere by transport.
2. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS:--Urbanisation and acquisition of land for public well fare are important socio-economic factor which change the pattern of population distribution, these factors create serious problems for mankind.
1. URBANISATION: People migrate from rural areas to cities because of better employment prospectus, educational facilities and has services. Increasing urbanisation has created a number of problems like environment, pollution, sanitation and sewage disposal, traffic problems, housing problems, disease, and mental health etc.
2. USE OF LAND FOR PUBLIC WELL FARE:--Use of agriculture land for roads, rail lines, canals, industries, educational institution, hospitals, offices, and houses etc.
3. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS:--The birth and death rates are the major factor that determine the population growth of a country. The birth rate is regwated in human socio-economic factors such as status of women, family composition, age of women of marriage etc. The death rate depends on public hygiene, nutritional status, type of employment, medical facilities etc. the birth and death rates vary from region to region and from time to time, depending upon environmental factors.
FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION
There are many factors, which put the effects on the population due to which our population increases. These are the factors such as birth rate, death rate, immigration, literacy, age structure, sex ratio and environmental factor.
1.BIRTH RATE:--It can be expressed as the number of birth per thousand human in the population per year. In the starting of 20th century the birth rate was 49.2 (per 1000) and it become 26.1 (per 1000) in the end of century.
2. DEATH RATE:--It can be expressed as the number of deaths per 1000 human in the population per year. Birth and death rate both are reduced but birth rate reduced very fastly. It is 42.6 (per 1000) in the starting of 20th century and after decreasing it become 8.7(per 1000) at the end of century. It is due to the protection from natural risk, better transport, storage facility and control of communicable disease etc.
3. IMMIGRATION:--Immigration is the entry of additional peoples into a population from outside.
4. LITERACY:--Literacy is the most important factor due to which our population increases because educated people can understand the importance of small family. In India, literacy rate increase from 5%(1901) to 65.35%(2001) in Kerala, the percentage of literacy is maximum from all states. It is 90%. There is a relation between illustration and growth of population where are literacy rate is minimum there population.
5. AGE STRUCTURE:--Age structure of population can divided into three parts:
Below 15 years old child, 15-59 years old people and above 59 years old people, The group of 15-59 years old people is known as productive population and below 15 years old child and above 59 years old people are called dependent population. In 2001, the percentage of working population was 58.7% and dependent population was 41.3%. But still the percentage of dependent population was quite large and this large percentage of dependent population, especially children would naturally have deep repercussions on us. The standard of living would naturally fall and all would be spent by the working population on feeding themselves and their dependents. In such a case, very little would be left for education of children. There would be very little scope of saving for the rainy day.
6. SEX RATIO:-- The number of females per thousand males in the population is called sex ratio. According to the census of 2001, the sex ratio was 933 females to 1000 males. In our country, the sex ratio remained favorable to males except in Kerala where in 2001 this ratio was 1058 females to 1000 males and in Pondicherry where the sex ratio was 1001 females to 1000 males.
7.ENVIRONENTAL FACTORS:--Food and shelter (space) are the most important environmental factors that effect the size and density of population. Population tends to increase so long as food and shelter are available. If shelter is scare, fewer individuals can be accommodated and the rest are expose to enemies and weather. Natural calamities such as drought, cloud bursts flood, fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption, and storms etc. may cause sudden change in the environment by destroying food and shelter. Adrastic change in the environment can destabilize or even exterminate a population.
FOR INCREASE IN POPULATION
The main factors that contributed to the declined in death rate and the consequent rise in population are:--
1. PROTECTION FROM NATURAL RISKS:-- Living in houses protected man from wild animal, heat, cold, rain, floods, and storms. Life in villages, towns, and cities provided further security.
2. ADVANCEMENT IN AGRICULTURE:--Improved agriculture techniques increased food output for rising population.
3. STORAGE FACILITIES:--Better storage facilities made food available all the year round. It also prevented or minimized loss by grain pests.
4. BETTER TRANSPORT:--Modern transport system rapidly carried food from surplus regions to sear city regions and eliminated famines.
5. GOVERNMENT EFFORTS:---Certain governmental measures such as public distribution system checking or hoarding, ensure food supply to all.
6. CONTROL OF DISEASE:--Control of communicable disease with antibiotics elimination of epidemics and sound public health measures reduce the death rate and increased the human population.
Deaths in developing countries are often due to respiratory and digestive tract infection particularly in infants. Such deaths are easily avoidable with the use of clean water and nutritious food and with basic education in hygiene.
The only practicable and direct method of control population is to reduce the birth rate. This can be achieved by education and family planning.
1. EDUCATION:--People particularly those in reproductive age group, should be educated about the advantages of small family and consequent benefit to the nation as a whole.
2. FAMILY PLANNING:--Birth rate can be reduced by family planning measures, such as use of contraceptives and pills, sterilization and termination of pregnancy.