Side-Effects of Rapid Technological Development : There
are some shortcomings. the dangerous side effects of rapid technological
development have to be seriously and earnestly faced and checked ; environmental
degradation, for instance, has to be prevented with the very help of the
science, has to be prevented with the very help of the science and technology
whose careless application can cause irreversible damage. Interaction between
the scientific community and the rest of the society must be encouraged so as to
avoid misdirected research and sub-optimal use of investment made. A better
management of resources is called for so that science.
Technology is the systematic knowledge and action usually of industrial processes but applicable to any recurrent activity. The term covers the practice, description and terminology of any or all of the applied sciences which have practical value and industrial use. It is closely related to engineering. If engineering is the application of objective knowledge to the creation of plans, designs and means for achieving descried objectives, technology deals with the tools and appended to the term technology these days- low, high, appropriate and so on.
Low technology generally refers to the application of scientific devices for different aspects of production. It does net displace labour. Intermediate technology refers to the production of finished goods and intermediary products.
High technology refers to the use of sophisticated and complex process and machinery, and is made as of in capital goods industries like steel, communications equipment space and nuclear installations etc. Appropriate technology, as the name suggests is suitable for given conditions of production available resources, technical know - how, needs etc.
Science Policy : Science policy resolution the aim of
this policy is to foster, promote and sustain the cultivation of the sciences
and scientific research in the country and to encourage industrial initiative
for dissemination of scientific knowledge, recognize the work of research
scientists and ensure that the creative talent of men and women is encouraged to
find full scope in scientific activity. Above all to secure for the people of
the country all the benefits that can accrue from the acquisition and
application of scientific knowledge.
Technology policy as Indian science progressed, it was felt that newer indigenous technologies needed to be developed even as imported technologies were to be efficiently absorbed and adapted. The technology policy statement of 1983 grew out of the felt need for guidelines to cover a wide-ranging and complex set of related areas keeping in mind capital scarce character of developing economy. It aims at ensuring that the country's available natural endowments, especially human resources, are optimally utilized for continued increase in the well - being of all sections of people.
Technological advancement is sought to solve the country's multifarious problems and safeguard its independence and unity. Among is objectives are attainment of technological competence and self-reliance. Provision of gainful employment, making traditional skills commercially competitive, ensuring maximum development with minimum capital, modernization of equipment and technology, conservation of energy, ensuring harmony with environment etc.
Technology and Society : In order to enable large
sections of our society to derive the benefits from science and technology, this
policy is directed to achieve a greater spread in the use of technological
developments. ensure accessibility of technological devices to al segments of
the society with special emphasis on remote and rural communities in order to
improve their quality of life. enhance infrastructural facilities. upgrade
traditional skills and reduce drudgery keeping in new the special needs of women
and the weaker sections of society.
Technology Development : The technology information fore casting and assessment council was set up by the DST following the recommendations of the technology policy statement, 1983. TIFAC is an autonomous body whose objectives are to generate technology forecasting technology assessment and techno-market survey documents and to enable a technology information system which is interactive and nationally accessible. Technology forecasting and assessment studies have been carried out in areas of human settlement planning, building technology and skills, steel, sugar industry, materials technology and prospects for biotechnological products in India a by 2000 AD. New initiatives have been taken in surface engineering and high performance computational facilities among other things.
Science Planning in India : Science planning India has developed its own model of R & D Planning. The planning process adopted over the years is a two- way process involving broad policy guidelines from the planning commission, and ensuring interaction with scientists at national agency laboratory and university levels. This ensures the effective participation of the scientific community in decision making.
The process involves the following steps :
Space Research : Space research is no longer considered
as a high tech venture whose costs make it an irrelevant luxury for a developing
country like India.
Indeed the benefits of space research have great relevance for the third world countries - revolutionizing communications, natural resources management. Study of agricultural potential, weather monitoring and disaster management further more the spin offs from space technology find applications in fields raining from food storage to open-heart surgery, from fishing to automobiles.
The Indian space programme is greed to the utilization of space technology for the socio-economic development of the country.
Space applications centre at Ahmedabad is involved in research and development in space applications. It has the primary responsibility to conceptualize, plan and execute projects and research programmes leading to practical use of space technology. The activities include satellite based telecommunications and TV and remote sensing for natural resources survey and management, environmental monitoring, meteorology and geodesy. The centre is organized functionally into satellite communications. Remote sensing and microwave remote sensing. Support services are provided by technical services group consisting of environmental test facilities, electronics and mechanical fabrication facilities and reliability and quality assurance group.
Developmental and Educational communication unit at Ahmedabad is involved in various areas of software research such as television programme production. Policy studies and research in society technology interaction. major takes of DECU include :
(a) Kheda communication Project
(b) Training of staff especially for Doordarshan
(c) Social research related to communication and
(d) policy and technology studies related to applications of space technology.
Progress of space Research :- The Indian space programme has come a long way from humble beginning of testing sundry rockets to acquiring the capability to launch giant polar satellite launch vehicles and putting various class remote sensing satellite in low earth orbits.
The environmental Research programme aims at developing strategies,
technologies and methodologies for better environmental management in India. It
also seeks to strengthen facilities and infrastructure to facilitate research
and training of manpower for undertaking environmental research. The programme
particularly aims at attempting solutions to the practical problems of resource
management and provides necessary inputs for development and formulation of
action plans for conservation of natural resources and restoration of degraded
Research projects are funded in multidisciplinary aspects of environment protection. Conservation and management at various universities, research and development institutions and reputed non-governmental organizations of the country. these are support under the following main schemes.,
Agriculture represents the first endeavor of human beings to control static
resources, that is, the bounty of the land. Modern agriculture has come a long
way since its beginnings : it is now a complex scientific activity aimed at
producing the maximum amount of food with the minimum expenditure of time, space
and energy to meet the needs of a growing population and economy. India is a
predominantly agrarian country, agriculture providing live hood to about 65 per
rent of the labour force and contributing nearly 29 per cent of the net national
product. Development of pearl culture technology the central marine fisheries
research institute has boosted its efforts at perfecting technologies for land -
based pearl culture.
Pearl Culture Technology : Pearl Culture Technology comprised three phases seed production in hatcheries, nursery of seeds, mother oyster farming and culture of implanted oysters, the last two phases are carried out at sea where pearl farms were established.
Drip Irrigation System : Drip Irrigation System, Fawara Technology are also used in agriculture field for increase the production. Govt. of India announced 90% subsidy for farmers to use Drip Irrigation System in their agriculture field.