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Project Report on Vitamins
This project report is entitled
"Vitamins Sources of Vitamins" and all information about Vitamins, Classification of Vitamins,
Vitamins as Organic Compounds, Need and Importance of Vitamins, Types of
Vitamins, Water Soluble Vitamins and Fat Soluble Vitamins.
Vitamins and classification
Vitamins are natural substances found in plants and animals and known as
Essential nutrients for human beings. The name vitamin is obtained from "vital
amines" as it was originally thought that these substances were all amines.
Human body uses these substances to stay healthy and support its many functions.
Vitamins are generally regarded as organic compounds required in the diet in
small amounts to perform specific biological functions for normal maintenance of
optimum growth and health of the organism.
Needs and Importance of Vitamins :
The body needs vitamins to stay healthy and a varied diet usually gives you all
the vitamins you need.
Vitamins do not provide energy (calories) directly, but they do help regulate
energy-producing processes. With the exception of vitamin D and K, vitamins
cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained from the diet.
Vitamins have to come from food because they are not manufactured or formed by
the body. So lets find out the uses and the importance of vitamins in our daily
Types of Vitamins:
There are two types of vitamins: water-soluble and fat-soluble. Water-soluble
vitamins Water-soluble vitamins cannot be stored in the body, so you need to get
them from food every day. They can be destroyed by overcooking. These are easily
absorbed by the body. Human body doesn't store large amounts of water-soluble
vitamins. B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are water-soluble vitamins that are
not stored in the body and must be replaced each day. These vitamins are easily
destroyed or washed out during food storage and preparation. They are eliminated
in urine so, body need a continuous supply of them in diets.
Proper storage and preparation of food can minimize vitamin loss. To reduce
vitamin loss, refrigerate fresh produce, keep milk and grains away from strong
light, and use the cooking water from vegetables to prepare soups. An excess of
water soluble vitamins should not result in any side effects as they will
disperse in the body fluids and voided in the urine.
Water-Soluble Vitamins :
Nine of the water-soluble vitamins are known as the
B-complex group: Thiamin (vitamin B1), Riboflavin (vitamin B2), Niacin, Vitamin
B6, Foliate, Vitamin B12, Biotin, Pantothenic acid and Vitamin C. These vitamins
are widely distributed in foods.
Fat-soluble Vitamins :
The fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E and K -
since they are soluble in fat and are absorbed by the body from the intestinal
tract. The human body has to use bile acids to absorb fat-soluble vitamins. Once
these vitamins are absorbed, the body stores them in body fat. When you need
them, your body takes them out of storage to be used. Eating fats or oils that
are not digested can cause shortages of fat-soluble vitamins.
Fat soluble vitamins should not be consumed in excess as they are stored in the
body and an excess can result in side effects. An excess of vitamin A may result
in irritability, weight loss, dry itchy skin in children and nausea, headache,
diarrhea in adults.
Characteristics of Vitamins :
Characteristics of the vitamins are:
1. Most of the vitamins have been artificially synthesized.
2. Some of vitamins are soluble in water and others are fat-soluble.
3. Some vitamins are synthesized in the body. Some members of vitamin B complex
are synthesized by microorganisms in the intestinal tract.
4. Vitamins are partly destroyed and are partly excreted.
5. Vitamins can be stored in the body to some extent, for example the
fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and subcutaneous tissue.
6. Vitamins can perform their work in very small quantities.
Hence, the total daily requirement of Vitamins is usually very small.