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Project Report on Enzymes

i. Ribozyme : cech et al , 1981 isolated ribozyme from Tetrahymena.

ii. Ribonuclease-P : discovered by Altman from bacteria.

Enzymes Inorganic catalyst
Almost all enzymes are proteins and have a complex molecular organization.

They occur in living cells

An enzyme catalyses only a specific reactions

They get damaged at high temperatures (above 40C)

They are highly efficient

They are usually small and simple molecules like nickel, platinum etc.

They do not occur in living cells

They are not specific for any one reaction and can catalyse a number of reactions

They work efficiently at high temperatures and pressures.

They are less efficient.

Nature of Enzyme Action:

Each enzyme has an active site to which the substrate binds and forms a short lived highly reactive enzyme substrate complex. This is followed by formation of the enzyme-product complex (EP). Finally the enzyme product complex dissociates into the product (P) and the enzyme freed remains unchanged and is able to bid to more substrate molecules.

The formation of ES complex is essential for catalysis.

The catalytic cycle of an enzyme action can be described as follows:

  1. The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme.
  2. The binding of the substrate induces the enzyme to alter the shape and fit more tightly around the substrate.
  3. The active site of the enzyme which is in close proximity of the substrate breaks the chemical bonds of the substrate and an enzyme-product complex is formed.
  4. The enzyme releases the product(s) of the reaction and the free enzyme is ready to take up another molecule of the substrate.

Factors affecting Enzyme Activity


Project report chemical-reactions-of-enzymes

Project Report on pH - Acidity and Basicity of Enzymes

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