Project Report on Malaria : Malaria is one of the major diseases which is caused by Protozoan. Protozoan causes many diseases in human beings. Malaria has been for thousands of years a very serious disease of the tropical and temperate regions. Prevalence of malaria continues to be one of the major health problems of developing countries. It was almost eliminated a few years back with the efforts of WHO and our National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP), but unfortunately it has appeared again. Plasmodium is a genus of Protozoa belonging to subphylum Sporozoa, class Telosporidea, includes causative agent of malaria in man and lower animals. Members of the genus plasmodium are collectively known as Malaria parasite, because they cause a horrible diseases called malaria.
History of Malaria - Malaria means - Mala - bad area - air, malaria term was given by "Macculoch" in 1872. Ronalol Ross established mosquito-malaria relationship on Aug. 29, 1897. Since this day is celebrated as Mosquito Day.
Malaria Position in World - Malaria more common in developing countries as compared to developed countries. It is generally present in Kenya, Uganda, South-Africa, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Srilanka where the temperature are high.
1. Parasite posses various forms and complete their life cycle through alternative host and Reservoir.
2. Parasite acquire Resistant to pesticides like D.D.T.
There are four species of plasmodium which causes different kinds of human malaria.
a) P.Vivax - It causes benign tertian malaria, which attacks every third day i.e. after 48 hours. The fever is mild and seldom fatal.
b) P.Ovale - It also causes benign tertian malaria, which recurs every 48 years.
c) P.Malaria - It causes quartia malaria which recurs every fourth day i.e. after 72 hours.
d) P. Falciparum - It alone is capable of causing three types of malaria, quotidian malaria, which attacks almost daily, malignant tertian malaria but which occurs every 48 hours, but is very severe and often fatal ; and irregular malaria.
e) It reserve in some animals in normal condition of animal like, Monkey.
f) Resistant of Mosquito against D.D.T.
It is the causative organism of tertian or benign tertian malaria, which is characterized by 48 hours cycle between the first malarial fever and subsequent recurrence of chill and fever. Life cycle of "Plasmodium Vivax" is being digenetic, it is completed in two hosts. The asexual cycle is passed in man by a process termed schizogony. The sexual cycle is completed in the final hosts or vector, the female Anopheles mosquito, involving gametogony and sporogony. These process results in the formation of infective stage the sporozoites.
Pre manual pat arroyo produced a vaccine against malaria in 1987 but it proved effective upto 60 to 70% cases.
The incubation period for malaria caused by Plasmodium Vivax is about 10-14 days.
Malaria Symptoms - The attack of malaria is preceded by Yawning tiredness, headache and muscular pain. During the fever, the patient feels chilly and shivers and high temperature. After a few hours the body freely and the temperature becomes normal. The cycle is repeated if no medicine is taken. This is also accompanied by enlargement of spleen and liver.
We control the malaria from :
1. Drain off or fill up all ditches, ponds etc.
2. Cover the drains.
3. Clear the sluggish.
4. The adult mosquitoes can also be avoided by removing unnecessary thing around the house.