Introduction towards Project Report Job Satisfaction :
The father of scientific management Taylor's (1911) approach to job satisfaction was based on a most pragmatic & essentially pessimistic philosophy that man is motivation by money alone. That the workers are essentially 'stupid & phlegmatic' & that they would be satisfied with work if they get higher economic benefit from it. But with the passage of time Taylor's solely monetary approach has been changed to a more humanistic approach. It has come a long way from a simple explanation based on money to a more realistic but complex approach to job satisfaction. New dimensions of knowledge are added every day & with increasing understanding of new variables & their inter play, the field of job satisfaction has become difficult to comprehend.
The term Job Satisfaction was brought to limelight by Hoppock (1935). He reviewed 32 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 & observed that job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological & environmental circumstances that cause a person to say. 'I am satisfied with my job'. Locke defines job satisfaction as a "pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences". To the extent that a person's job fulfils his dominant need & is consistent with his expectations & values, the job will be satisfying.
One way to define Job Satisfaction may be to say that it is the end state of feeling. The word 'end' emphasises the fact that the feeling is experienced after a task is accomplished or an activity has taken place whether it is highly individualistic effort of writing a book or a collective endeavour of constructing a building. These activities may be minute or large. But in all cases, they satisfy a certain need. The feeling could be positive or negative depending upon whether need is satisfied or not & could be a function of the effort of the individual on one hand & on the other the situational opportunities available to him.
This can be better understood by taking example of a foreman in an engineering industry. He has been assigned the task to complete a special order by a certain, deadline. Person may experience positive job satisfaction because he has been chosen to complete the task. It gives him a special status & feeling that he has been trusted and given a special task, he likes such kind of rush job and it may get him extra wages. The same could be the sources of his dissatisfaction if he does not like rush work, has no need for extra wages. Each one of these variables lead to an end state of feeling, called satisfaction.
Sinha (1974) defines Job Satisfaction an 'a reintegration of affect produced by individual's perception of fulfillment of his needs in relation to his work & the situations surrounding it'.
There are 3 major theories of job satisfaction.
Herzberg's Motivation - Hygiene Theory :
This theory was proposed by Herzberg & his assistants in 1969. On the basis of his study of 200 engineers and accountants of the Pittsburgh area in the USA, he established that there are two separate sets of conditions (and not one) which are responsible for the motivation & dissatisfaction of workers. When one set of conditions (called 'motivator') is present in the organisation, workers feel motivated but its absence does not dissatisfy them. Similarly, when another set of conditions (called hygiene factors) is absent in the organisation, the workers feel dissatisfied but its presence does not motivate them. The two sets are unidirectional, that is, their effect can be seen in one direction only.
According to Herzberg following factors acts as motivators:Achievement, Recognition, Advancement, Work itself, Possibility of growth & Responsibility.
Hygiene factors are : Company policy & administration, Technical supervision, Inter-personal relations with supervisors, peers & Subordinates, Salary. Job security, Personal life, Working Conditions, & Status.
Herzberg used semi-structured interviews (the method is called critical incident method). In this technique subjects were asked to describe those events on the job which had made them extremely satisfied or dissatisfied. Herzberg found that events which led people to extreme satisfaction were generally characterised by 'motivators' & those which led people to extreme dissatisfaction were generally characterized by a totally different set of factors which were called 'hygiene factors'.
Hygiene factors are those factors which remove pain from the environment. Hence, they are also known as job - environment or job - context factors. Motivators are factors which result in psychological growth. They are mostly job - centered. Hence they are also known as job - content factors.
The theory postulated that motivators and hygiene factors are independent & absence of one does not mean presence of the other. In pleasant situations motivators appear more frequently than hygiene factors while their predominance is reversed in unpleasant situations.
Need Fulfillment Theory :
Under the need-fulfillment theory it is believed that a person is satisfied if he gets what he wants & the more he wants something or the more important it is to him, the more satisfied he is when he gets it & the more dissatisfied he is when he does not get it. Needs may be need for personal achievement, social achievement & for influence.
a) Need for Personal Achievement :
Desires for personal career development, improvement in one's own life standards, better education & prospects for children & desire for improving one's own work performance.
b) Need for Social Achievement :
A drive for some kind of collective success is relation to some standards of excellence. It is indexed in terms of desires to increase overall productivity, increased national prosperity, better life community & safety for everyone.
c) Need for Influence :
A desire to influence other people & surroundings environment. In the works situation, it means to have power status & being important as reflected in initiative taking and participation in decision making.
In summary, this theory tell us that job satisfaction is a function of, or is positively related to the degree to which one's personal & social needs are fulfilled in the job situation.
Social References - Group Theory :
It takes into account the point of view & opinions of the group to whom the individual looks for the guidance. Such groups are defined as the 'reference-group' for the individual in that they define the way in which he should look at the world and evaluate various phenomena in the environment (including himself). It would be predicted, according to this theory that if a job meets the interest, desires and requirements of a person's reference group, he will like it & if it does not, he will not like it.
A good example of this theory has been given by C.L. Hulin. He measures the effects of community characteristics on job satisfaction of female clerical workers employed in 300 different catalogue order offices. He found that with job conditions held constant job satisfaction was less among persons living in a well-to-do neighborhood than among those whose neighborhood was poor. Hulin, thus provides strong evidence that such frames of reference for evaluation may be provided by one's social groups and general social environment.
To sum up, we can say, Job satisfaction is a function of or is positively related to the degree to which the characteristics of the job meet with approved & the desires of the group to which the individual looks for guidance in evaluating the world & defining social reality.
Motivation implies the willingness to work or produce. A person may be talented and equipped with all kinds of abilities & skills but may have no will to work. Satisfaction, on the other hand, implies a positive emotional state which may be totally unrelated to productivity. Similarly in the literature the terms job attitude and job satisfaction are used interchangeably. However a closer analysis may reveal that perhaps, they measure two different anchor points. Attitudes are predispositions that make the individual behave in a characteristic way across the situations.
They are precursors to behaviour & determine its intensity and direction. Job satisfaction, on the other hand is an end state of feeling which may influence subsequent behaviour. In this respect, job attitude and job satisfaction may have something in common. But if we freeze behaviour, attitude would initiate it which job satisfaction would result from it.
According to Seashore (1959), morale is a condition which exists in a context where people are :
a) motivated towards high productivity.
b) want to remain with organization.
c) act effectively in crisis.
d) accept necessary changes without resentment or resistance.
e) actually promote the interest of the organization and
f) are satisfied with their job.
According to this description of morale, job satisfaction is an important dimension of morale itself.
Morale is a general attitude of the worker and relates to group while job satisfaction is an individual feeling which could be caused by a variety of factors including group. This point has been summarized by Sinha (1974) when he suggests that industrial morale is a collective phenomenon and job satisfaction is a distributed one. In other words, job satisfaction refers to a general attitude towards work by an individual works. On the other hand, morale is group phenomenon which emerges as a result of adherence to group goals and confidence in the desirability of these goals.
Generally, the level of job satisfaction seems to have some relation with various aspects of work behaviour like absenteeism, adjustments, accidents, productivity and union recognition. Although several studies have shown varying degrees of relationship between them and job satisfaction, it is not quite clear whether these relationships are correlative or casual. In other words, whether work behaviour make him more positively inclined to his job and there would be a lesser probability of getting to an unexpected, incorrect or uncontrolled event in which either his action or the reaction of an object or person may result in personal injury.
Experiments have shown that there is very little positive relationship between the job satisfaction & job performance of an individual. This is because the two are caused by quite different factors. Job satisfaction is closely affected by the amount of rewards that an individual derives from his job, while his level of performance is closely affected by the basis for attainment of rewards. An individual is satisfied with his job to the extent that his job provides him with what he desires, and he performs effectively in his job to the extent that effective performance leads to the attainment of what he desires. This means that instead of maximizing satisfaction generally an organisation should be more concerned about maximizing the positive relationship between performance and reward. It should be ensured that the poor performers do not get more rewards than the good performers. Thus, when a better performer gets more rewards he will naturally feel more satisfied.
One can find a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism, but the correlation is moderate-usually less than 0.40. While it certainly makes sense that dissatisfied Sales Persons are more likely to miss work, other factors have an impact on the relationship and reduce the correlation coefficient. e.g. Organizations that provide liberal sick leave benefits are encouraging all their Sales Persons, including those who are highly satisfied, to take days off. So, outside factors can act to reduce the correlation.
Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover, but the correlation is stronger than what we found for absenteeism. Yet, again, other factors such as labour market conditions, expectations about alternative job opportunities, and length of tenure with the organization are important constraints on the actual decision to leave one's current job.
Evidence indicates that an important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationship is the Sales Person's level of performance. Specifically, level of satisfaction is less important in predicting turnover for superior performers because the organization typically makes considerable efforts to keep these people. Just the opposite tends to apply to poor performers. Few attempts are made by the organization to retain them. So one could expect, therefore, that job satisfaction is more important in influencing poor performers to stay than superior performers.
It the Sales Person is facing problems in general adjustment, it is likely to affect his work life. Although it is difficult to define adjustment, most psychologists and organisational behaviourists have been able to narrow it down to what they call neuroticism and anxiety.
Generally deviation from socially expected behaviour has come to be identified as neurotic behaviour. Though it may be easy to identify symptoms of neuroticism, it is very difficult to know what causes. Family tensions, job tensions, social isolation, emotional stress, fear, anxiety or any such sources could be a source of neuroticism.
Anxiety, on the other hand, has a little more clearer base. It is generally seen as a mental state of vague fear and apprehension which influences the mode of thinking. Anxiety usually shows itself in such mental state as depression, impulsiveness, excessive worry and nervousness. While everyone aspires for a perfect state of peace and tranquility, the fact is that some anxiety is almost necessary for an individual to be effective because it provides the necessary push for efforts to achieve excellence.
Adjustment problems usually show themselves in the level of job satisfaction. For long, both theorists and practitioners have been concerned with Sales Persons' adjustment and have provided vocational guidance and training to them to minimise it's impact on work behaviour. Most literature, in this area, generally suggests a positive relationship between adjustment and job satisfaction. People with lower level of anxiety and low neuroticism have been found to be more satisfied with their jobs.
According to Abrahan A. Korman, there are two types of variables which determine the job satisfaction of an individual. These are :
1) Organisational variables ; and
2) Personal Variables.
Organisational Variable :
1) Occupational Level :
The higher the level of the job, the greater is the satisfaction of the individual. This is because higher level jobs carry greater prestige and self control.
2) Job Content :
Greater the variation in job content and the less repetitiveness with which the tasks must be performed, the greater is the satisfaction of the individual involved.
3) Considerate Leadership :
People like to be treated with consideration. Hence considerate leadership results in higher job satisfaction than inconsiderate leadership.
4) Pay and Promotional Opportunities :
All other things being equal these two variables are positively related to job satisfaction.
5) Interaction in the work group :
Here the question is : When is interaction in the work group a source of job satisfaction and when it is not ? Interaction is most satisfying when -
(a) It results in the cognition that other person's attitudes are similar to one's own. Since this permits the ready calculability of the others behaviour and constitutes a validation of one's self ;
(b) It results in being accepted by others ; and
(c) It facilitates the achievements of goals.
Personal Variables :
For some people, it appears most jobs will be dissatisfying irrespective of the organisational condition involved, whereas for others, most jobs will be satisfying. Personal variables like age, educational level, sex, etc. are responsible for this difference.
(1) Age :
Most of the evidence on the relation between age and job satisfaction, holding such factors as occupational level constant, seems to indicate that there is generally a positive relationship between the two variales up to the pre-retirement years and then there is a sharp decrease in satisfaction. An individual aspires for better and more prestigious jobs in later years of his life. Finding his channels for advancement blocked, his satisfaction declines.
(2) Educational Level :
With occupational level held constant there is a negative relationship between the educational level and job satisfaction. The higher the education, the higher the reference group which the individual looks to for guidance to evaluate his job rewards.
(3) Role Perception :
Different individuals hold different perceptions about their role, i.e. the kind of activities and behaviours they should engage in to perform there job successfully. Job satisfaction is determined by this factor also. The more accurate the role perception of an individual, the greater his satisfaction.
(4) Sex :
There is as yet no consistent evidence as to whether women are more satisfied with their jobs than men, holding such factors as job and occupational level constant. One might predict this to be the case, considering the generally low occupational aspiration of women.
Some other determines of job satisfaction are as follows:
(i) General Working Conditions.
(ii) Grievance handling procedure.
(iii) Fair evaluation of work done.
(iv) Job security.
(v) Company prestige.
(vi) Working hours etc.
How Sales Persons Can Express Dissatisfaction
Sales Person dissatisfaction can be expressed in a number of ways. For example, rather than quit, Sales Persons can complain, be insubordinate, steal organisational property, or shirk a part of their work responsibilities. In the following figure, four responses are given along to dimensions : Constructiveness / Destructiveness and Activity / Passivity. These are defined as follow :
Exit : Behaviour directed towards leaving the organisation. Includes looking for a new position as well as resigning.
Voice : Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions includes suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and some forms of union activity.
Loyalty : Passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. Includes speaking up for the organisation in the face of external criticism and trusting the organisation and its management to 'do the right thing'.
Neglect : Passively allowing the conditions to worsen. Includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate.
Exit and neglect behaviours encompass our performances variables-productivity, absenteeism and turnover. But this model expands Sales Person response to include voice and loyalty, constructive behaviours that allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations or to revive satisfactory working conditions.
Importance of High Job Satisfaction :
The importance of job satisfaction is obvious. Managers should be concerned with the level of job satisfaction in their organisations for at least three reasons:
(1) There is clear evidence that dissatisfied Sales Persons skip work more often and are more likely to resign ;
(2) It has been demonstrated that satisfied Sales Persons have better health and live longer ; and
(3) Satisfaction on the job carries over to the Sales Person's life outside the job.
Satisfied Sales Persons have lower rate of both turnover and absenteeism. Specifically, satisfaction is strongly and consistently negatively related to an Sales Person's decision to leave the organisation. Although satisfaction and absence are also negatively related, conclusions regarding the relationship should be more guarded.
An often overlooked dimension of job satisfaction is its relationship to Sales Person health. Several studies have shown that Sales Persons who are dissatisfied with their jobs are prone to health setbacks ranging from headaches to heart disease. For managers, this means that even if satisfaction did not lead to less voluntary turn over and absence, the goal of a satisfied work force might be jutificable because it would reduced medical costs and the premature loss of valued Sales Persons by way of heart disease or strokes.
Job satisfaction's importance is its spin off effect that job satisfaction has for society as a whole. When Sales Persons are happy with their jobs, it improves their lives off the job. In contrast, the dissatisfied Sales Person carries that negative attitude home.
Some benefits of job satisfaction accure to every citizen in society. Satisfied Sales Persons are more likely to be satisfied citizens. These people will hold a more positive attitude towards life in general and make for a society of more psychologically healthy people.
So job satisfaction is very important. For management, a satisfied work force translates into higher productivity due to fewer disruptions caused by absenteeism or good Sales Persons quitting, as well as into lower medical and life insurance costs. Additionally, there are benefits for society in general. Satisfaction on the job carries over to the Sales Person's off the job hours. So the goal of high job satisfaction for Sales Persons can be defended in terms of both money and social responsibility.
Project Description :
Title : MBA Project Report on Job Satisfaction of Employees
Project Description : MBA Project Report on Job Satisfaction of Employees Theory of Job Satisfaction, Relationship Between job satisfaction and work behaviour, productivity, absenteeism, Turnover, Adjustment & How Sales Persons Can Express Dissatisfaction
Pages : 73
Category : Project Report for MBA
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