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Physics Project Report on Heating Effect of Current





1. Mechanism of the Heating Effect

2. Uses

3. Working

4. Principle

5. Bibliography



This is to certify that the investigatory Project Report entitled "Heating Effect of Current" submitted by student of Class XII is original and has been completed by him under my supervision.



As a student of Class XII. I did this project on a a part of my studies entitled to "Heating Effect of Current". I owe a deep sense of gratitude to my Physics Teacher whose valuable advice, guidance and helped me in doing this project from conception to completion.

At the same time, I can not forget to express my thankfulness to our school Principal for extending his generous, patronage and constant encouragement.

Finally I thankful my parents for helping me economically and my friends for giving me a helping hand at every step of the project.


Signature of the Student



Heating effect of electricity is one of the widely used effects in the world. When electric current is passed through a conductor, it generates heat due to the resistance it offers to the current flow. The work done in overcoming the resistance is generated as heat.


Mechanism of the Heating Effect

Every conductor has large number of free electrons which are move randomly in random direction. When P.D. is applied the current starts flowing i.e. electrons move in a particular direction. During their movement electrons collide with atoms and for each collision they lose some energy. The K.E. of vibration of atom of conductor. This result in production of heat.


Use of Heating Effect of Current

1. Use in some electrical appliances such as Room Heaters :

  1. Room Heaters

  2. Electric Press

  3. Water Heaters

  4. Geysers



Note the masses of empty a calorimeter and the paraffin wax oil and initial temperature S1 after placing the calorimeter in its P position in the wooden box. Insert key K and note the potential difference V and current I. As the current passes, heat is produced in the coil. Store the oil continuously so as to keep the temperature of oil uniform through. Note the final temperature O2 after current has passes for time T.

If    M1    =    mass of calorimeter

      M2    =    mass of paraffin oil.

      S1    =     specific heat of calorimeter

      S2    =    specific heat of paraffin oil.

      Q1    =    initial temperature.

      Q2    =    final temperature.

Then amount of heat produced is given by :

    H = M1S1 (Q2 - Q1) + M2S2 (Q2 - Q1)

    H = (M1S1 + M2S2) (Q2 - Q1)



Jule's Law :

It state that whenever current I passes through a conductor of resistance R for time T the heat produced H is :

(i) Directly proportional to the square of current for given resistance i.e. H a I2.

(ii) Directly proportional to the time for a given current and resistance i.e. H a t.

(iii) Directly proportional to resistance of conductor i.e. H a R.

So combining the three factor

                    H a I2 Rt

                    H = KI2 Rt





1. Modernís abc of Physics.

2. Pradeepís Fundamental Physics.

3. Dinesh a to z Physics.

4. Internet Sources :,

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