Project Report on Insurance Sector in India Overview
INSURANCE SECTOR OVERVIEW
The insurance sector has a long history in India. The insurance sector in India has come a full circle from being an open competitive market to nationalization and back to a liberalized market again. Tracing the developments in the Indian insurance sector reveals the 360-degree turn witnessed over a period of almost 190 years.
The business of life insurance in India in its existing form started in India in the year 1818 with the establishment of the Oriental Life Insurance Company in Calcutta. The 1st legal enactment was made in 1870. The 1st Indian Insurance Act was passed in 1938 and amended in 1950, when it was nationalized. However, the sector was once again thrown open to the private sector on December 1999, followed by the establishment of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) in April 2000.
Though the Insurance Sector is now open for private players as a consequence of the new liberalization policies of the Government, the existing government owned Insurance companies will, nevertheless, continue to be in the government sector. These existing companies will, however, have to strive for better realization of their corporate objectives and goals to meet the demands and expectations of the public.
Quality of service and product that an industry offers must move forward with progress in the state of the economy. As the quantum and quality of service change over time, the levels at which customers continue to remain satisfied with the services provided, also keep on increasing. Ultimately, the success of any industry depends upon its positioning in the state of economy and on meeting the expectations of the service users.
With competition, the performance level of individual companies is expected to increase. Segmentation is taking place within the economy with a need for socially responsive service sector.
Globalization is the new economic reality, which is here to stay, heralding a new era of insurance in India. With the opening of the insurance industry, India stands to gain with the following major advantages:
So, itís clear that the insurance was in private hands before 1971 and was nationalized in 1972 with all private companies merged into General Insurance Corporation of India as
The parent company with 4 subsidiaries as National Insurance Company Ltd. with Head Office at Calcutta, New India Assurance Company Ltd. with Head Office at Bombay, Oriental Insurance Company Ltd. with Head Office at New Delhi and United India Insurance Company Ltd. with Head Office at Madras.
In 1993 the need for Private Insurance Companies and Multinational Companies was felt and beginning of liberalization process started.
GROWTH OF INSURANCE INDUSTRY
Life Insurance History :
Life Insurance History : Life insurance in its existing form came in India from United Kingdom (UK) with the establishment of a British firm, Oriental Life Insurance Company in 1818 followed by Bombay Life Assurance Company in 1823, the Madras Equitable Life Insurance Society in 1829 and Oriental Life Assurance Company in 1874. Prior to 1871, Indian lives were treated as sub-standard and charged an extra premium of 15% to 20%. Bombay Mutual Life Assurance Society, an Indian insurer that came into existence in 1871, was the first to cover Indian lives at normal rates. The Indian Life Assurance Companies Act, 1912 was the first statutory measure to regulate life insurance business. Later, in 1928 the Indian Insurance Companies Act was enacted, inter alias, to enable the government to collect statistical information about life and non-life insurance business transacted in India by Indian and foreign insurers, including the provident insurance societies.
In 1938, with a view to protecting the interest of insuring public, earlier legislation was consolidated and amended by Insurance Act, 1938 with comprehensive provisions for detailed and effective control over the activities of insurers. In order to administer the aforesaid legislation, an insurance wing was established and attached first with the Ministry of Commerce and then Ministry of Finance. This ministry was administratively responsible for policy matters pertaining to insurance. The actuarial and operational matters relating to the insurance industry were looked after by an attached office in Shimla, headed first by Actuary to the Government of India, then by Superintendent of Insurance and finally by the Controller of Insurance. The act was amended in 1950, making far-reaching changes such as requirement of equity capital for companies, carrying on life insurance business, ceilings on shareholdings I such companies, stricter control on investment of life insurance companies, submission of periodical returns relating to investments and such other information to the Controller as he may call for, appointments of administrators for mismanaged companies, ceilings on expenses of management and agency commission, incorporation of the Insurance Association of India and formation of councils and committees thereof.
By 1956, 154 Indian insurers, 16 non-Indian insurers and 75 provident societies were carrying on life insurance business in India. Life insurance business was confirmed mainly to cities and better off segments of the society.
On 19th January 1956 the management of life insurance business of 245 Indian and foreign insurers and provident societies, then operating in India, was taken over by the Central Government and then nationalized on 1st September 1956. An Act of Parliament, viz. LIC Act, formed LIC in September 1956, with capital contribution of Rs. 5 crore from the Government of India.
The then Finance Minister, Shri S.D.Deshmukh, while piloting the bill for nationalization, outlined the objectives of LIC thus: to conduct the business with utmost economy, in a spirit of trusteeship; to charge premium no higher than warranted by strict actuarial considerations; to invest the funds for obtaining maximum yield for the policy holders consistent with safety of the capital; to render prompt and efficient service to policy-holders, thereby making insurance of recommendations of the Administrative Reforms Commission as under:
Above as shown in the table, there are 16 major players in the Indian insurance industry. But as far my study is concerned we will focus on the major life insurance companies in Indian insurance industry which are on the top most position in Indian market. In my study I comprise the Kotak life insurance with one Public sector Company and other Private sector companies. These companies are:
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