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Project Report - Training Need / Identification and Importance of Training for Employees
TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS - 5p/Training
The game of economic
competition has new rules. Firms should be fast and responsive. This
requires responding to customers' needs for quality, variety,
customization, convenience and timeliness. Meeting these new standards
requires a workforce that is technically trained in all respects. It
requires people who are capable of analyzing and solving job related
problems, working cooperatively in teams and 'changing hats' and shifting
from job to job as well. Training has increased in importance in today's
environment where jobs are complex and change. Rapidly. Companies that pay
lip-service to the need for training, by lazily setting aside a few hours
a year, will soon find themselves at the receiving end when talented
employees leave in frustration and other employees find it difficult to
beat rivals with new products, sophisticated designs and improved ways of
selling. To survive and flourish in the present day corporate-jungle,
companies should invest time and money in upgrading the knowledge and
skills of their employees constantly. For, any company that stops
injecting itself with intelligence is going to die. The purpose of this
chapter is make the student understand the basic principles, areas, and
methods of training currently in use in the corporate circles.
After employees have been
selected for various positions in an organization, training them for the
specific tasks to which they have been assigned assumes great importance.
It is true in many organizations that before an employee is fitted into a
harmonious working relationship with other employees, he is given adequate
training. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an
employee for performing a particular job. The major outcome of training is
learning. A trainee learns new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge
during the training that helps him improve performance. Training enables
an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for
a higher-level job. The essential features of training may be stated thus:
knowledge and skills for doing a particular job; it bridges the gap
between job needs and employee skills, knowledge and behaviors
Focuses attention on the current job; it is job specific and
addresses particular performance deficits or problems
Concentrates on individual employees; changing what
employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work or their
interactions with their co-workers or supervisors
Tends to be more narrowly focused and oriented toward
short-term performance concerns.
Training is needed to
serve the following purposes:
Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform
their tasks effectively. Instruction, guidance, coaching help them to
handle jobs competently, without any wastage.
Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for
higher-level jobs (promotion).
Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep
abreast of the latest developments in job operations. In the face of rapid
technological changes, this is an absolute necessity.
Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to
another (transfer). After training, the' employee can change jobs quickly,
improve his performance levels and achieve career goals comfortably
Training is necessary to make employees mobile and
versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational
Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the
employee has and what the job demands.
Training is needed to make
employees more productive and useful in the long-run.
Training is needed for employees to gain acceptance
from peers (learning a job quickly and being able to pull their own weight
is one of the best ways for them to gain acceptance).
Training offers innumerable
benefits to both employees and employers. It makes the employee more
productive and more useful to an organization. The importance of training
can be studied under the following heads:
Benefits to the business:
Trained workers can work more
efficiently. They use machines, tools, and materials in a proper way.
Wastage is thus eliminated to a large extent.
There will be fewer
accidents. Training improves the knowledge of employees regarding the use
of machines and equipment. Hence, trained workers need not be put under
close supervision, as they know how to handle operations properly.
Trained workers can show
superior performance. They can turn out better performance. They can turn
out better quality goods by putting the materials, tools and equipment to
Training makes employees more
loyal to an organization. They will be less inclined to leave the unit
where there are growth opportunities
Benefits to the employees:
Training makes an employee
more useful to a firm. Hence, he will find employment more easily.
Training makes employees more
efficient and effective. By combining materials, tools and equipment in a
right way, they can produce more with minimum effort.
Training enables employees to
secure promotions easily. They can realise their career goals comfortably.
Training helps an employee to
move from one organization to another easily. He can be more mobile and
pursue career goals actively.
Employees can avoid mistakes,
accidents on the job. They can handle jobs with confidence. They will be
more satisfied on their jobs. Their morale would be high.
Thus, training can contribute
to higher production, fewer mistakes, greater job satisfaction and lower
labour turnover. Also, it can enable employees to cope with
organizational, social and technological change. Effective training is an
invaluable investment in the human resources of an organization.
The Philosophy of Training
Training is essential for job
success. It can lead to higher production, fewer mistakes, greater job
satisfaction and lower turnover. These benefits accrue to both the trainee
and the organization, if managers understand the principles behind the
training process. To this end, training efforts must invariably follow
certain learning-oriented guidelines.
Modeling is simply copying
someone else's behavior. Passive classroom learning does not leave any
room for modeling. If we want to change people, it would be a good idea to
have videotapes of people showing the desired behavior. The selected model
should provide the right kind of behavior to be copied by others. A great
deal of human behaviour is learned by modelling others. Children learn by
modelling parents and older children, they are quite comfortable with the
process by the time they grow up. As experts put it. "managers tend to
manage as they were managed"
For learning to take place,
intention to learn is important. When the employee is motivated, he pays
attention to what is being said, done and presented. Motivation to learn
is influenced by the answers to questions such as: How important is my job
to me? How important is the information? Will learning help me progress in
the company? etc. People learn more quickly when the material is important
and relevant to them. Learning is usually quicker and long-lasting when
the learner participates actively. Most people, for example, never forget
how to ride a bicycle because they took an active part in the learning
If a behavior is rewarded, it
probably will be repeated. Positive reinforcement consists of rewarding
desired behaviors. People avoid certain behaviors that invite criticism
and punishment. A bank officer would want to do a postgraduate course in
finance, if it earns him increments and makes him eligible for further
promotions. Both the external rewards (investments, praise) and the
internal rewards (a feeling of pride and achievement) associated with
desired behaviors compel subjects to learn properly. To be effective, the
trainer must reward desired behaviors only. If he rewards poor
performance, the results may be disastrous: good performers may quit in
frustration, accidents may go up, and productivity may suffer. The
reinforcement principle is also based on the premise that punishment is
less effective in learning than reward. Punishment is a pointer to
undesirable behaviors. When administered, it causes pain to the employee.
He mayor may not repeat the mistakes. The reactions may be mild or wild.
Action taken to repeal a person from undesirable action is punishment. If
administered properly, punishment may force the trainee to modify the
undesired or incorrect behaviors.
People learn best if
reinforcement is given as soon as possible after training. Every employee
wants to know what is expected of him and how well he is doing. If he is
off the track, somebody must put him back on the rails. The errors in such
cases must be rectified immediately. The trainee after learning the right
behaviour is motivated to do things in a 'right' way and earn the
associated rewards. Positive feedback (showing the trainee the right way
of doing things) is to be preferred to negative feedback (telling the
trainee that he is not correct) when we want to change behaviour.
Learning takes place easily
if the practice sessions are spread over a period of time. New employees
learn better if the orientation programme is spread over a two or three
day period, instead of covering it all in one day. For memorizing tasks,
'massed' practice is usually more effective. Imagine the way schools ask
the kids to say the Lord's prayer aloud. Can you memorise a long poem by
learning only one line per day? You tend to forget the beginning of the
poem by the time you reach the last stanza. For 'acquiring' skills as
stated by Mathis and Jackson, spaced practice is usually the best. This
incremental approach to skill acquisition minimises the physical fatigue
that deters learning.
The concept of whole learning
suggests that employees learn better if the job information is explained
as an entire logical process, so that they can see how the various actions
fit together into the 'big picture'. A broad overview of what the trainee
would be doing on the job should be given top priority, if learning has to
take place quickly. Research studies have also indicated that it is more
efficient to practice a whole task all at once rather than trying to
master the various components of the task at different intervals.
'Practice makes a man
perfect': so said Bacon. To be a swimmer, you should plunge into water
instead of simply reading about swimming or looking at films of the
worlds' best swimmers. Learning is enhanced when trainees are provided
ample opportunities to repeat the task. For maximum benefit, practice
sessions should be distributed over time.
Applicability of Training
Training should be as real as
possible so that trainees can successfully transfer the new knowledge to
their jobs. The training situations should be set up so that trainees can
visualise - and identify with - the types of situations they can come
across on the job.
Finally, environment plays a
major role in training. It is natural that workers who are exposed to
training in comfortable environments with adequate, well spaced rest
periods are more likely to learn than employees whose training conditions
are less than ideal. Generally speaking, learning is very fast at the
beginning. Thereafter, the pace of learning slows down as opportunities
for improvement taper off.
Areas of Training
The Areas of Training in
which training is offered may be classified into the following categories.
Here the trainee learns about
a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products
or services offered by the company. The aim is to make the new employee
fully aware of what goes on inside and outside the company.
The employee is taught a
specific skill (e.g., operating a machine, handling computer etc.) so that
he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully.
The employee is made to learn
about himself and others, and to develop a right mental attitude towards
the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching
the employee how to be a team member and get ahead.
This involves the application
of knowledge and skill to various on-the-job situations.
In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of
employees, training aims at moulding employee attitudes: When administered
properly, a training programme will go a long way in obt8ining employee
loyalty, support and commitment to company activities.
Types of Training
There are many approaches to
training. We focus here on the types of training that are commonly
employed in present-day organisations.
This type of training is most common in organisations. The process
here is fairly simple. The need for training in basic skills (such as
reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening, problem solving,
managing oneself, knowing how to learn, working as part of a team, leading
others) is identified through assessment. Specific training objectives are
set and training content is developed to meet those objectives. Several
methods are available for imparting these basic skills in modern
organisations (such as lectures, apprenticeship, on-the-job, coaching
etc.). Before employing these methods, managers should:
explain how the training will help the trainees in their
relate the training to the trainees' goals.
respect and consider participant responses and use these as
encourage trainees to learn by doing.
feedback on progress toward meeting learning objectives.
Refresher training: Rapid changes in
technology may force companies to go in for this kind of training. By
organising short-term courses which incorporate the latest developments in
a particular field, the company may keep its employees up-to-date and
ready to take on emerging challenges.
It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of
outside consultants who specialise in a particular descriptive.
Cross-functional Training: Cross-functional
Training involves training employees to perform operations in areas other
than their assigned job. There are many approaches to cross functional
training. Job rotation can be used to provide a manager in one functional
area with a broader perspective than he would otherwise have. Departments
can exchange personnel for a certain period so that each employee
understands how other departments are functioning. High performing workers
can act as peer trainers and help employees develop skills in another area
of operation. Cross functional training provides the following benefits to
an organisation (and the workers as well) (1) Workers gain rich experience
in handling diverse jobs; they become more adaptable and versatile (2)
they can better engineer their own career paths (3) they not only know
their job well but also understand how others are able to perform under a
different set of constraints (4) A broader perspective increases workers'
understanding of the business and reduces the need for supervision (5)
when workers can fill in for other workers who are absent, it is easier to
use flexible scheduling, which is increasingly in demand as more employees
want to spend more time with their families. Eli Lilly and Company
(India), for example, encourages cross-functional movements to make the
organisation equally attractive to both specialists and generalists.
Team Training: Team training generally covers
two areas; content tasks and group processes. Content tasks specify the
team's goals such as cost control and problem solving. Group processes
reflect the way members function as a team - for example how they interact
with each other, how they sort out differences, how they participate etc.
Companies are investing heavy amounts, nowadays, in training new employees
to listen to each other and to cooperate. They are using outdoor
experiential training techniques to develop teamwork and team spirit among
their employees (such as scaling a mountain, preparing recipes for
colleagues at a restaurant, sailing through uncharted waters, crossing a
jungle etc.). The training basically throws light on (i) how members
should communicate with each other (ii) how they have to cooperate and get
ahead (iii) how they should deal with conflict-full situations (iv) how
they should find their way, using collective wisdom and experience to good
Creativity training: Companies like Mudra
Communications, Titan Industries, Wipro encourage their employees to think
unconventionally, break the rules, take risks, go out of the box and
devise unexpected solutions.
judgment: Don't reject any idea
alternative frames of reference
Break the boundary of thinking
different aspect of the problem
Make a wish
list of solutions
from other fields
processes to change or eliminate
In creativity training,
trainers often focus on three things:
(a) Breaking away:
In order to break away from restrictions, the trainee is expected to
(i) identify the dominant ideas influencing his own thinking (ii) define
the boundaries within which he is working (iii) bring the assumptions out
into the open and challenge everything
(b) Generate new ideas:
To generate new ideas, the trainee should open up his mind; look
at the problem from all possible angles and list as many alternative
approaches as possible. The trainee should allow his mind to wander over
alternatives freely. Expose himself to new influences (people, articles,
books, situations), switch over from one perspective to another, -arrange
cross fertilization of ideas with other people and use analogies to spark
(c) Delaying judgement:
To promote creative thinking, the trainee should not try to kill
off ideas too quickly; they should be held back until he is able to
generate as many ideas as possible. He should allow ideas to grow a
little. Brainstorming (getting a large number of ideas from a group
of people in a short time) often helps in generating as many ideas as
possible without pausing to evaluate them. It helps in releasing ideas,
overcoming inhibitions, cross fertilising ideas and getting away from
Diversity Training: Diversity training
considers all of the diverse dimensions in the workplace race, gender,
age, disabilities, lifestyles, culture, education, ideas and backgrounds -
while designing a training programme. It aims to create better
cross-cultural sensitivity with the aim of fostering more harmonious and
fruitful working relationships among a firm's employees.
The programme covers two things: (i) awareness building,
which helps employees appreciate the key benefits of diversity, and (ii)
skill building, which offers the knowledge, skills and abilities required
for working with people having varied backgrounds.
Literacy Training: Inability to write, speak
and work well with others could often come in the way of discharging
duties, especially at the lower levels. Workers, in such situations, may
fail to understand safety messages, appreciate the importance of sticking
to rules, and commit avoidable mistakes. Functional illiteracy (low skill
level in a particular content area) may be a serious impediment to a
firm's productivity and competitiveness. Functional literacy programmes
focus on the basic skills required to perform a job adequately and
capitalise on most workers' motivation to get help in a particular area.
Tutorial programmes, home assignments, reading and writing exercises,
simple mathematical tests, etc., are generally used in all company
in-house programmes meant to improve the literacy levels of employees with
weak reading, writing or arithmetic skills.
Training methods are usually
classified by the location of instruction. On the job training is provided
when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities at
the actual workplace; off-the-job training, on the other hand, requires
that trainees learn at a location other than the real work spot. Some of
the widely used training methods are listed below.
1. Job Instruction
The JIT method (developed
during World War II) is a four-step instructional process involving
preparation, presentation, performance try out and follow up. It is used
primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. A trainer,
supervisor or co-worker acts as the coach. The four steps followed in the
JIT methods are:
The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its
desired outcomes, with a clear focus on the relevance of training.
The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a
model to copy. The trainer shows a right way to handle the job.
Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainer's way.
Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated
until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job.
Finally, the employee does the job independently without
• Trainee learns fast through
practice and observation.
• It is economical as it does
not require any special settings. Also, mistakes can be corrected
• The trainee gains
confidence quickly as he does the work himself in actual setting with help
• It is most suitable for
unskilled and semi-skilled jobs where the job operations are simple; easy
to explain and demonstrate within a short span of time.
• The trainee should be as
good as the trainer if the trainer is not good, transference of knowledge
and skills will be poor.
• While learning, trainee may
damage equipment, waste materials, cause accidents frequently,
• Experienced workers cannot
use the machinery while it is being used for training.
Coaching is a kind of daily
training and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors. It
involves a continuous process of learning by doing. It may be defined as
an informal, unplanned training and development activity provided by
supervisors and peers. In coaching, the supervisor explains things and
answers questions; he throws light on why things are done the way they
are; he offers a model for trainees to copy; conducts lot of decision
making meetings with trainees; procedures are agreed upon and the trainee
is given enough authority to make divisions and even commit mistakes. Of
course, coaching can be a taxing job in that the coach may not possess
requisite skills to guide the learner in a systematic way. Sometimes,
doing a full day's work may be more important than putting the learner on
When to use coaching
usefully? Coaching could be put to good use when:
an employee demonstrates a new competency
an employee expresses interest in a different job within the
an employee seeks feedback
an employee is expressing low morale, violating company
policies or practices or having performance problems
an employee needs help with a new skill following a formal
Effective working, obviously,
requires patience and communication skills. It involves:
explaining appropriate ways of doing things
making clear why actions were taken
stating observations accurately
offering possible alternatives / suggestions
3. Mentoring :
Mentoring is a relationship
in which a senior manager in an organisation assumes the responsibility
for grooming a junior person. Technical, interpersonal and political
skills are generally conveyed in such a relationship from the more
experienced person. A mentor is a teacher, spouse, counsellor, developerr
of skills and intellect, host, guide, exemplar, and most importantly,
supporter and facilitator in the realisation of the vision the young
person (protege) has about the kind of 1ife he wants as an adult.
The main objective is to he1p
an employee attain psychological maturity and effectiveness and get
integrated with the organisation. In a work situation, such mentoring can
take place at both formal and informal levels, depending on the prevailing
work culture and the commitment from the top management. Formal mentoring
can be very fruitful, if management invests time and money in such
relationship building exercises.
Career functions: Career functions are those
aspects of the relationship that enhance career advancement. These
Sponsorship: Where mentors actively nominate a junior
person (called 'mentee') for promotions or desirable positions.
Exposure and visibility: Where mentors offer
opportunities for mentees to interact with senior executives, demonstrate
their abilities and exploit their potential.
Coaching: Mentors help mentees to analyse how they
are doing their work and to define their aspirations. Here mentors offer
practical advice on how to accomplish objectives and gain recognition from
Protection: Mentors shield the junior person from
Challenging assignments: Mentors help mentees develop
necessary competencies through challenging job assignments and appropriate
feedback. Mentors create opportunities clients to prove their worth to
demonstrate clearly what they have to offer.
Psychological functions: Psychological
functions are those aspects that enhance the mentee’s sense of competence,
and identify effectiveness in a professional role. These include:
Role modeling: Mentors offer mentees a pattern of
values and behaviours to imitate
Acceptance and confirmation: mentors offer support,
guidance and encouragement to mentees so that they can solve the problems
independently and gain confidence in course of time. Mentors also help
people to learn about the organisation's culture and understand why things
are done in certain ways.
Counseling: Mentors help mentees work out their
personal problems, learn about what to do and what not to do, offer advice
on what works and what doesn't, and do everything to demonstrate improved
performance and prepare themselves for greater responsibility.
Friendship: Mentors offer practical help and support
to mentees so that they can indulge in mutually satisfying social
interactions (with peers, subordinates, bosses and customers)
Mentoring in India is based
on the time-honoured guru-shishya relationship where the guru would do
everything to develop the personality of the shishya, offering emotional
support, and guidance. Companies like TISCO, Neyveli Lignite Corporation,
Polaris, Coca-Cola India have used mentoring systems to good effect in
recent times (Economic Times, 25 Oct., 2002). Organisations like General
Electric, Intel, Proctor & Gamble have given a lot of importance to
mentoring programmes, going even gone to the extent of penalising senior
managers if they fail to develop leadership skills among subordinates. Of
course, mentoring is not without its problems. Mentors who are
dissatisfied with their jobs and though who teach or narrow or distorted
view of events may not help a protege's development. Not all mentors are
well prepared to transfer their skills and wisdom to their junior
colleagues. When young people are bombarded with conflicting viewpoints -
about how things should go - from a series of advisors, they may find it
difficult to get ahead with confidence. Mentoring can succeed if (i) there
is genuine support and commitment from top management (ii) mentors take up
their job seriously and transfer ideas, skills and experiences in a
systematic way and (iii) mentees believe in the whole process and carry
out things in an appropriate manner.
4. Job Rotation :
This kind of training involves the
movement of trainee from one job to another. This helps him to have a
general understanding of how the organisation functions. The purpose of
job rotation is to provide trainees with a larger organisational
perspective and a greater understanding of different functional areas as
well as a better sense of their own career objectives and interests. Apart
from relieving boredom, job rotation allows trainees to build rapport with
a wide range of individuals within the organisation, facilitating future
cooperation among departments. The cross-trained personnel offer a great
amount of flexibility for organisations when transfers, promotions or
replacements become inevitable.
Job rotation may pose several problems,
especially when the trainees are rolled on various jobs at frequent
intervals. In such a case, trainees do not usually stay long enough in any
single phase of the operation to develop a high degree of expertise. For
slow learners, there is little room to integrate resources properly.
Trainees can become confused when they are exposed to rotating managers,
with contrasting styles of operation. Today's manager's commands may be
replaced by another set from another manager! Further, job rotation can be
quite expensive. A substantial amount of managerial time is lost when
trainees change positions, because they must be acquainted with different
people and techniques in each department. Development costs can go up and
productivity is reduced by moving a trainee into a new position when his
efficiency levels begin to improve at the prior job. Inexperienced
trainees may fail to handle new tasks in an efficient way. Intelligent and
aggressive trainees, on the offer hand, may find the system to be
thoroughly boring as they continue to perform more or less similar jobs
without any stretch, pull and challenge. To get the best results out of
the system, it should be tailored to the needs, interests and capabilities
of the individual trainee, and not be a standard sequence that all
Most craft workers such as
plumbers and carpenters are trained through formal apprenticeship
programmes. Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time
working with an experienced guide, coach or trainer. Assistantships and
internships are similar to apprenticeships because they also demand high
levels of participation from the trainee. An internship is a kind of
on-the-job training that usually combines job training with classroom
instruction in trade schools, colleges or universities. Coaching, as
explained above, is similar to apprenticeship because the coach attempts
to provide a model for the trainee to copy. One important disadvantage
ofthe apprenticeship methods is the uniform period of training offered to
trainees. People have different abilities and learn at varied rates. Those
who learn fast may quit the programme in frustration. Slow learners may
need additional training time. It is also likely that in these days of
rapid changes in technology, old skills may get outdated quickly. Trainees
who spend years learning specific skills may find, upon completion of
their programmes, that the job skills they acquired are no longer
In this method, trainees are
asked to solve an actual organisational problem. The trainees have to work
together and offer solution to the problem. Assigning talented employees
to important committees can give these employees a broadening experience
and can help them to understand the personalities, issues and processes
governing the organisation. It helps them to develop team spirit and work
unitedly toward common goals. However, managers should very well
understand that committee assignments could become notorious time wasting
activities. The above on-the-job methods are cost effective. Workers
actually produce while they learn. Since immediat.e feedback is available,
they motivate trainees to observe and learn the right way of doing things.
Very few problems arise in the· case of transfer of training because the
employees learn in the actual work environment where the skills that are
learnt are actually used. On-the-job methods may cause disruptions in
production schedules. Experienced workers cannot use the facilities that
are used in training. Poor learners may damage machinery and equipment.
Finally, if the trainer does not possess teaching skills, there is very
little benefit to the trainee.
Under this method of
training, the trainee is separated from the job situation and his
attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job
performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he
can focus his entire concentration on learning the job rather than
spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for freedom of
expression for the trainees. Off-the-job training methods are as follows:
a. Vestibule training:
method, actual work
conditions are simulated in a classroom. Material, files and equipment -
those that are used in actual job performance are also used in the
training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel
for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges
from a few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this
b. Role playing:
It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic
behaviour in imaginary situations. This method of training involves
action, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain
characters, such as the production manager, mechanical engineer,
superintendents, maintenance engineers, quality control inspectors,
foreman, workers and the like. This method is mostly used for developing
interpersonal interactions and relations.
c. Lecture method:
The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The
instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in
the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create
interest among the trainees. An advantage of lecture method is that it is
direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. Thus, costs and time
involved are reduced. The major limitation of the lecture method is that
it does not provide for transfer of training effectively.
Conference/discussion approach: In this method, the
trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainee in a discussion so
that his doubts about the job get clarified. When big organisations use
this method, the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as black boards,
mockups and slides; in some cases the lectures are videotaped or audio
taped. Even the trainee's presentation can be taped for self
confrontation and self-assessment.
The conference is, thus, a
group-centered approach where there is a clarification of ideas,
communication of procedures and standards to the trainees. Those
individuals who have a general educational background and whatever
specific skills are required such as typing, shorthand, office equipment
operation, filing, indexing, recording, etc. - may be provided with
specific instructions to handle their respective jobs.
Programmed instruction: This method has become
popular in recent years. The subject matter to be learned is presented in
a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged
from simple to more complex levels of instruction. The trainee goes
through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This
method is, thus, expensive and time-consuming.
Some training programmes
focus on emotional and behavioural learning. Here employees can learn
about behaviour by role-playing in which the role players attempt to act
their part in respect of a case, as they would behave in a real-life
situation. Business games, cases, incidents, group discussions and short
assignments are also used in behaviourally-experienced learning methods.
Sensitivity training or laboratory training is an example of a method used
for emotional learning. The focus of experiential methods is on achieving,
through group processes, a better understanding of oneself and others.
These are discussed elaborately in the section covering Executive
Evaluation of a Training
The specification of values
forms a basis for evaluation. The basis of evaluation and the mode of
collection of information necessary for evaluation should be determined at
the planning stage.
The process of training
evaluation has been defined as any attempt to obtain information on the
effects of training performance and to assess the value of training in the
light of that information. Evaluation helps in controlling and correcting
the training programme. Hamblin suggested five levels at which evaluation
of training can take place, viz., reactions, learning, job behaviour,
organisation and ultimate value.
Reactions: Trainee's reactions to the overall
usefulness of the training including the coverage of the topics, the
method of presentation, the techniques used to clarify things, often throw
light on the effectiveness of the programme. Potential questions to
trainees might include: (i) What were your learning goals for the
programme? (ii) Did you achieve them? (iii) Did you like this programme?
(iv) Would you recommend it to others who have similar learning goals? (
v) what suggestions do you have for improving the programme? (vi) Should
the organisation continue to offer it?
Learning: Training programme, trainer's ability and
trainee's ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content
learned and time in which it is learned and learner's ability to use or
apply the content learned.
Job behaviour: This evaluation includes the manner
and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job.
Organisation: This evaluation measures the use of training,
learning and change in the job behaviour of the department/organisation in
the form of increased productivity, quality, morale, sales turnover and
Ultimate value: It. is the measurement of ultimate
result of the contributions of the training programme to the company goals
like survival, growth, profitability, etc. and to the individual goals
like development of personality and social goals like maximising social
Methods of Evaluation
Various methods can be used
to collect data on the outcomes of training. Some of these are:
Questionnaires: Comprehensive questionnaires
could be used to obtain opinions, reactions, views of trainees.
Tests: Standard tests could be used to find
out whether trainees have learnt anything during and after the training.
Interviews: Interviews could be conducted to
find the usefulness of training offered to operatives.
Studies: Comprehensive studies could be
carried out eliciting the opinions and judgements of trainers, superiors
and peer groups about the training.
Human resource factors: Training can also be
evaluated on the basis of employee satisfaction, which in turn can be
examined on the basis of decrease in employee turnover, absenteeism,
accidents, grievances, discharges, dismissals, etc.
Cost benefit analysis: The costs of training
(cost of hiring trainers, tools to learn, training centre, wastage,
production stoppage, opportunity cost of trainers and trainees) could be
compared with its value (in terms of reduced learning time, improved
learning, superior performance) in order to evaluate a training programme.
Feedback: After the
evaluation, the situation should be examined to identify the probable
causes for gaps in performance. The training evaluation information (about
costs, time spent, outcomes, etc.) should be provided to the instructors,
trainees and other parties concerned for control, correction and
improvement of trainees' activities. The training evaluator should follow
it up sincerely so as to ensure effective implementation of the feedback
report at every stage.
Programme of Company
To establish and maintain a
documented procedure for identifying and providing training to all the
employees of the organization with essential skill and knowledge so as to
achieve desired quality and productivity goals.
This procedure is applicable
to all employees. Company's personnel involved in quality system.
Training is provided both “In
House” and through “Outside Agencies” Which could be for an individual or
for group of persons as a collective training.
Training is conducted either
through “Planned Training Programme” “Emergent Training Programme” which
is organized by the HRD Department
The planned training
programme is drawn on annual basis both for individual and group of
persons for collective training at the beginning of Calendar Year by
Manager HRD and HRD Executive of factory. The departmental Heads drawn out
the training requirements on the training requisition slip and sent it to
HID Dept. Training of the senior personnel at Factory Is also catered for
at Head Office on receipt of requirement from HRD Executive.
The annual Training Prog. at
Head office is approved by from Chairman cum Managing Director.
Annual training Prog. is
prepared on format and circulated to all heads of department and is
updated. If required in case of additional training needs.
Emergent Training –
The Emergent training
programme is a supplementary training programme both for individual and
collective persons which is imparted during the course of work to take
care for unforeseen or uncatered training requirements arisen due to
installation of new machine, system, procedure etc.
Identification of such
training need is done by the concerned HOD at Head Office and
HOD/Supervisor at factory and accordingly forwards their request. The
procedure as in case of planned training is followed there after.
Conduct of Training
HRD Head at HO & HRD (Executive) at factory ensures that identified training
in their respective areas is conducted as scheduled.
case of External training, liaison with the agency is done and dates,
venue etc. is fixed up and concerned person is intimated through Heads of
In-House training, date/Venue is fixed up with identified faculty and
concerned individual is informed through Heads of Department. Besides,
necessary resource/infrastructure is also provided for effective training.
External Trainers for the
Father Son & Company
Skill & Thoughts
covered under Training Programme
& Scheme Provisions
Rigid and Semi Rigid Packaging
of Contract Labour Act
Self-motivational & Attitudinal Seminar
about operations in the company.
Processing of Rice (value addition In Rice)
about rice trade
and maintenance of dryer & Cleaning Plant
goods quality control
the effectiveness of the training programme conducted by the company.
whether employees are aware about their responsibilities and authorities
improve Organizational Climate and increase the morale of employees.
whether training programme is conducted successfully or not.
about the work culture of the organization.
Job satisfaction is in regard
to one's feeling or state of mind regarding the nature of their work. It
can be influenced by a variety of factors e.g.: quality of one's
relationships with there supervisor, quality of physical environment in
which they work, degree of fulfillment in there work etc.
Locke gives a comprehensive
definition of job satisfaction as involving cognitive, effective and
evaluative reactions or attitudes and states it is "a pleasurable or
positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job
experience." Job satisfaction is a result of employees' perception of how
well their job provides those things that are viewed as important.
There are three generally
accepted dimensions to job satisfaction.
First, job satisfaction is an
emotional response to a job situation, as such it cannot be seen; it can
only be inferred.
Second, job satisfaction is
often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. For
example if organizational participants feel that they are working more
harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards, they
will probably have a negative attitude toward the work, the boss or the
coworkers. They will be dissatisfied. On the other hand, if they feel they
are being treated very well and are being paid equitably, they are likely
to have a positive attitude toward the job. They will be job - satisfied.
Third, job satisfaction
represents several related attitudes.
determining job satisfaction
• Factors affecting jobs are
the main factors of job satisfaction, which may be challenging work,
reward systems, working conditions, colleagues, learning and personality.
Skill variety autonomy and significance are challenging tasks, which
provide maximum satisfaction to employees. Many people feel bored if a job
is too simple and routine, but many employees also enjoy simple and
• The job characteristics are
important factors for providing satisfaction. Reward systems, equitable
rewards, equal pay for equal work, promotion avenues, etc are satisfaction
factors. Money is important to employees having unfulfilled basic needs,
i.e. they require more award and recognition.
• Fairness in promotion,
unbiased attitude of management, responsibilities and social status are
the factors that are said to be providing satisfaction to employees.
• Working conditions
influence employee's level of satisfaction. Under conducive working
condition, people prefer to work hard while in an adverse atmosphere
people avoid work. Working condition not only include physicals of the
work but also the working relationships in the organization. The physical
conditions, for example, are the light, temperature, willingness, etc. A
clerk working under routine conditions likes to work hard in an air -
conditioned atmosphere with computer facilities. It increases the working
capacity of the employee.
The relationships between the employees and the managers
have an important bearing on job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is greater in case the higher authority is
sympathetic, friendly and willing to help the employees. Employees feel
satisfied when their views are listened to and regarded by their higher
Personal attitude and perceptions are the employees' angles
of satisfaction, which should be taken into consideration while motivating
people to arrive at job satisfaction
Feedback from the job itself and autonomy are two of the
major job-related motivational factors. A recent found that career
development was most important to both younger and older employees.
Supervision is another moderately important of job
satisfaction. There seem to be two dimensions of supervisory style that
affect job satisfaction. One is employee centeredness, which is measured
by the degree to which a supervisor takes a personal interest and cares
about the employee.
It commonly is manifested in
ways such as checking to see how well the employee is doing, providing
advice and assistance to the individual, and communicating with the
associate on a personal as well as an official level . The other dimension
is participation or influence, as illustrated by managers who allow their
people to participate in decisions that affect their own jobs. In most
case, this approach leads higher job satisfaction.
Friendly, cooperative coworkers or team members are a modest
source of job satisfaction to individual employees. The group, especially
a "tight" team, serves as a source of support, comfort, advice, and
assistance to the individual member.
Outcomes of job satisfaction
To society as a whole as well
as from an individual employee's standpoint, job satisfaction in and of
itself is a desirable outcome. It is important to know, if at all,
satisfaction relates to outcomes variable. For example, if job
satisfaction is high, will the employee perform better and the
organization be more effective? I f job satisfaction is low, will there be
performance problems and ineffectiveness? The following sections examine
the most important of these.
Most assume a positive
relationship; the research to date indicates that there is no strong
linkage between satisfaction and performance. Conceptual, methodological,
and empirical analyses have questioned and argued against these results.
The best conclusion about
satisfaction and performance is that there is, definitely a relationship.
The relationship may even be more complex than others in organization
behavior. For example, there seem to be many possible-moderating
variables, the most important of which is reward. If people receive reward
they feel are equitable, they will be satisfied, and is likely to result
in greater performance effort.
Satisfaction and turnover:
Unlike that between
satisfaction and performance, research has uncovered a moderately
negatively relationship between satisfaction and turnover. High job
satisfaction will not, in and of itself, keep turnover low, but it does
seem to help. On the other hand, if there is considerable job
dissatisfaction, there is likely to be high turnover. Obviously, other
variables enter into an Employees decision to quit besides job
satisfaction. For example, age tenure in the organization, and commitments
to the organization, may playa role. Some people cannot see them selves
working anywhere else, so they remain regardless of how dissatisfied they
Another factor is the general
economy, typically there will be an increase in turnover because will
being looking for better opportunities with other organization.
Research has only
demonstrated a weak negative relationship between satisfaction and
absenteeism. As with turnover, many variables enter into the decision to
stay home besides satisfaction with the job. For example, there are
moderating variables such as the degree to which people that there job are
important. For example, research among state govt. Employees has found
those who believed that there was important had lower absenteeism than did
who did not feel this way. Additionally, it is important to remember that
although job satisfaction will not necessarily result in absenteeism, low
job satisfaction more likely to bring about absenteeism.
Every organization desires that
it will grow continuously and make and retain its position in the
competitive and continuously changing market environment. For this purpose
the employees of the organization must be skilled and talented. But all the
employees may not have the desired skills. Their skills can be improved with
the help of training programs. It is an important activity for the
origination to conduct appropriate and related programme for its employees,
so that may be able to understand the terms required for the completion of
his job. This also helps the employees of the organization to know about his
job and organization very well. This also helps in better communication and
relation among the organization wants to grow rapidly, then it is essential
for it to conduct periodically training programmes for its employees to
improve the skills and knowledge.
So the top management must concentrate on the training programs and organize
them in such a way that maximum number of employees wants to attend these
programs. These must be related to employees and their jobs.
Project Description :
Title : MBA Project Report on Training Need and Identification for Employees
Project Description : MBA Project Report on Training Need and Identification for Employees
Pages : 73
Category : Project Report for MBA
This project is our paid category, its cost
is Rs. 2499/- only without Synopsis and Rs. 2999/- only with synopsis. If you need this
project, mail us at this id :
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We will send you a hardcopy with hard
binding and a softcopy in CD from courier.