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Project Report on Dual Career Couple & Their Work Life Balance

(A Survey on Private Concerns at Gurgaon and nearby Areas)

Dual Career Couple and Their Work Life Balance Project Report

INTRODUCTION :

The term “dual-career” was first coined in 1969 by a European academic couple (Rapoport & Rapoport 1969;Rapoport & Rapoport 1971). Since then this term has become quite established, other expressions are” coupled careers” (Bernasco1994), ”conjoint career couple” (Adler et al. 1989) or ”coordinated career” couple (Butler & Paisley 1980). These last two terms, however, refer to couples where both partners pursue careers in the same field or whose work activities overlap (Butler & Paisley 1980), and who are, therefore, professional colleagues in addition to being partners (Adler et al. 1989). According to the Rapoports, dual career couples differ from dual-earner families/couples. In dual-career couples, both partners pursue an occupational career occupying or seeking jobs which are characterized by high professional standards, a high degree of commitment and a developmental sequence.

The rationale for such a distinction between dual-career and dual-earner couples is that a number of problems are particularly relevant to the situation when both partners have and want to pursue careers, thus of dual-career couples. These problems can be classified into two areas: geographical mobility and family responsibilities – which, according to the results presented in the remainder of the report, not only but to a higher degree affect careers of women more than careers of men in dual-career couples.

This might be indicated by the fact that also for women holding academic degrees it is true that: ”although education does raise women’s pay, it does so less for women than for men” (Roos & Gatta1999: 101). The general reason behind this very well- established fact is often attributed to gender differences in career paths. Different attitudes toward work and the struggle to balance work and family responsibilities, but also gender segregation of occupations and discrimination might ”restrict women from attaining the highest positions, compared to men with similar backgrounds and education” (Stroh & Reilly 1999: 310).

Specifically for the ‘academic world’, there is strong evidence that married faculty women receive less prestigious positions and institutional rewards (Bird & Bird 1987; Bryant et al. 1988; Ezrati1983;Monk-Turner & Turner 1987).

What is Work/ Life Balance?

We all play many roles: employee, boss, subordinate, spouse, parent, child, sibling, friend, and community member. Each of these roles imposes demands on us that require time, energy and commitment to fulfill. Work-family or work-life conflict occurs when the cumulative demands of these many work and non-work life roles are incompatible in some respect so that participation in one role is made more difficult by participation in the other role.

This report conceptualizes work-life conflict to include role overload (RO) (having too much to do and too little time to do it in) as well as role interference (when incompatible demands make it difficult, if not impossible, for employees to perform all their roles well). Role interference, in turn, can be divided into two factors: family to work interference (FTW) and work to family interference (WTF). In the first case, interference occurs when family-role responsibilities hinder performance at work (i.e., a child’s illness prevents attendance at work; conflict at home makes concentration at work difficult). In the second case, interference arises when work demands make it harder for an employee to fulfill their family responsibilities (i.e., long hours in paid work prevent attendance at a child’s sporting event, preoccupation with the work role prevents an active enjoyment of family life, work stresses spill over into the home environment and increases conflict with the family). In this sense, then, work-life conflict can be seen to have two major components: the practical aspects associated with time crunches and scheduling conflicts (i.e., an employee can not be in two different places at the same time), and the perceptual aspect of feeling overwhelmed, overloaded or stressed by the pressures of multiple roles.

Work life balance is about people having a measure of control over when, where and how they work. It is achieved when an individual's right to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as the norm, to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and society.

Characteristics of Work and Family Balance

  • Not constant, comes and goes with life changes
  • It takes WORK
  • The process of seeking balance can be deeply rewarding

Work/ Life Balance Business Benefits

  • Studies on work/life balance programs have reported such benefits as:
  • Attracts new employees
  • Helps to retain staff
  • Builds diversity in skills and personnel

  • Improves morale
  • Reduces sickness and absenteeism

  • Enhances working relationships between colleagues
  • Encourages employees to show more initiative and teamwork
  • Increases levels of production and satisfaction
  • Decreases stress and burnout

Dual-Career Couple Facts

  • Nearly 50 percent of families have two wage earners
  • Half of the American work force is women
  • 70 percent of women with children under 18 work
  • Less than one-fifth of families are “traditional” breadwinner/homemaker families
  • Work plays a significant role in the lives of dual career families
  • 60 percent of working parents experience conflict between work and family demands

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

In the literature, there are three theories commonly used to explain mobility decisions in academic couples: neoclassical market model of family migration, social exchange theory, and gender-role ideology. In short, the neoclassical explanation (Becker 1981;Mincer 1978) assumes that decisions are driven by the aim to maximize family gains. Thus, each partner places family well - being ahead of his/her personal well - being and private interests. According to this model, either partner could be the mover: if the gains in earning of one partner’s job offer exceed the absolute value of the loss in earning of the other partner, the family will move to the new location. Since wives usually earn less and are employed in lower positions than their partners – because either they are younger, still in a lower career stage or in lower-paid professions – the husband’s gains when moving to a (new) job generally exceed the wife’s losses and, in addition, wife’s gains related to (new) job offers and requiring moving seldom exceed the husband’s losses. As a consequence women will frequently relocate according to their husbands’work exigencies.

The social exchange theory (Emerson 1976) comes to similar conclusions, but while the former is based on utility maximization, this theory invokes ”the notion of power as the mechanism through which decisions are made” (Hood 1983). Within the couple, the partner with more resources (mostly the man) is able to ”impose outcomes that further his or her own goals, often to the detriment of the partner’s goals” (Hood 1983).

These two theoretical approaches help explain what the causes are for ”one-career” arrangements even of academically educated partners and why one might find only few ”dual career” couples compared to dual-earner couples or the patterns of single careers of academic women.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of the study are :

  • To study the importance or need of dual career couples.
  • To study the relation of husband & wife while doing the job.
  • To find those factors that affect their jobs.
  • To check the level of stress between husband & wife.
  • To study the problems they are facing as working couples.
  • Try to find the solution of the problems they are facing.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Objective Survey

An objective survey was conducted to gather the relevant information. For this purpose, questionnaire was prepared with 15 questions. We asked to right option of their choice.

Type of The Study : Descriptive as well as explorative.

Data Collection Method

  • Primary Data: Structured Questionnaire

  • Secondary Data: Web sites & Past Research

Study Area

  • Some Private Concerns at Gurgaon and Nearby Areas.

Sample Size

  • Total no. of respondents are 50 for my survey ( both husband & wife )

 

Questionnaire

Project Report on Dual Career Couple

Name : ………………… Age : ……………. Gender : ………………... Experience: ………………. Profession : ………………. Qualification: ……………..

Ques:1 Are you satisfied your present job?

    Yes ( ) No ( )

Ques:2 What are the benefits of dual working couple?

    More earnings ( ) Mental satisfaction ( ) Improving standard of living ( ) All of them ( )

Ques:3 If you & your partner have or plan to have children?

    We have no children & plan to have any ( ) Yes, we have children ( )

Ques:4 Does children affect job choices of you & your partner?

    Yes ( ) No ( )

Ques:5 Whose earning is more?

    Husband ( ) Wife ( )

Ques:6 Whose career takes priority?

    Husband ( ) Wife ( )

Ques:7 Who takes family decisions?

    Husband ( ) Wife ( ) Both ( )

Ques:8 Do you have time for each other?

    Yes ( ) No ( )

Ques:9 Who takes responsibility for maintaining the household chores?

    Husband ( ) Wife ( ) Both ( )

Ques:10 Who leaves work or stays out of work to care for sick child, parents & pet?

    Husband ( ) Wife ( ) Both ( )

Ques:11 Are you able to spend your time in other family functions?

    Yes ( ) No ( ) Sometimes ( )

Ques:12 Do you discuss your problems with each other?

    Yes ( ) No ( ) Sometimes ( )

Ques:13 How many times you & your partner have conflicts because of your professional life?

    Usually ( ) Usually not ( )

Ques:14 How long do you want to stay in one city?

    0-1 yrs ( ) 1-2 yrs ( ) 3-4 yrs ( ) More than 4 yrs ( )

Ques:15 Have you or your partner changed your long term career goals because of issues involved in Dual Career Couple?

    Yes, I changed my long term career goals ( ) Yes, my partner changed his/her long term career goals ( ) No ( )

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Molander, C. (1996). Human Resources at Work. Chartwell-Bratt.
  • Badawy, M.K., (2007). Managing Human Resources. Research Technology Management Vol. 50, No.4, pp.56-74.
  • V.S., (2002). Human Resource Management: A Success and Failure Factor in Strategic Alliances. Employee Relations, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 61-80.
  • Ivancevich, J.M., Konopaske, R., & Matteson, M.T., (2008). Organizational Behavior and Management. 8th edition. McGraw-Hill, Irwin.
  • Indian Journals of Human resource

News Papers – Times of India, Hindustan Times

Websites :

  • www.ecu.edu/e3careers
  • www.google.com


Project Description :
Title : MBA HR Project Report Dual Career Couple and Work Life Balance, Dual Career Couple, What is Work Life Balance, Work and Family Balance, Business Benefits, Working Relationships Between Colleagues, Dual-Career Couple Facts, Human Resources at Work - 62 Pages

This project is our paid category, its cost is Rs. 2499/- only without Synopsis and Rs. 2999/- only with synopsis. If you need this project, mail us at this id : bkm.7899@gmail.com or Call me at +91-8398957646.

We will send you a hardcopy with hard binding and a softcopy in CD from courier.

 

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