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Project Report on Eco-System

WHY ECO-TOURISM CHANGED IN PROBLEM Project Report

The Mountain Eco-system is a unique creation having an altogether distinct characteristic. Mountains are fragile Eco-systems and are globally important, as water towers of the earth, repositories of rich biological diversity, minerals and forests target areas for recreation, and as a hub of cultural integrity and heritage. Occupying one-fifth of the world's land surface area, mountains provide a direct life support bar for one-tenth of humankind as well as goods and services to more than half the world's pollution. They are inhabited by the richest human culture. More than three billion people rely on mountains for water to grow food, to produce electricity, to sustain industries and most importantly, to drink. But owing to the ecological degradation, the regional hydrological cycle is being seriously affected and the mountains role as water towers will cease. The 'Greenhouse effect' in the mountains will have serious repercussions. The mountains agenda discussed in the united conference on the environment and development at Riode Janeiro in June 1992 says, "a warning trend in mountain region would not only cause an increase in the altitude of the snowlines, it would also increase water run-off by melting ice and snow. The glaciers themselves are resources and if they melt, the run-off regime would change dramatically and serious water storage may occur."

A study by the international center for integrated Mountains development Katmandu, Nepal reveals a large number of negative indicators suggesting that the mountains are far more fragile than low land environments. Throughout the world, unsustainable forestry and agriculture practice are degrading many mountains Eco-systems, after as a result of poverty, urbanization and growing pollution. Scientists also believe that mountains area barometers of global warning. Mountain glaciers, the source of water for most of the world's river systems, are melting at an unprecedented rate.

SITUATION OF ECO-TOURISM IN WORLD

As the new millennium unfolds, we are becoming increasingly aware of the finite, interconnected and precious nature of our planet home likewise, Tourism is becoming an increasingly popular expression of this awareness this advances in transportation and information technology even more remote areas of the earth are coming within reach of the travelers. In fact, tourism is now the world's largest industry, with nature tourism being the farthest growing segment.

Unfortunately the mountains in India are experiencing an inexorable decline in the resource base for local substance and a terrible deterioration in the already fragile environment. The results are landslides and frequent floods in the densely populated plain to the south of the Himalayan region in the Gaga and Brahmaputra basins .In the Kumaon himalayas, in the 1st few decades, there has been unprecedented growth in human population and a corresponding rise in development activities, including housing, industry, agriculture, mining and communications. Consequently, there has been a rapid shrinkage in the size of the remaining natural habitats and forests.

SHOULD IT BE CONTINUED IN FUTURE

Tourism is currently the world's largest industry and Eco-Tourism represent the fastest growing sector of this marked. Tourism is already the largest source of foreign exchange in countries like Costa Rice and Belize; in Guatemala, it is second. Throughout the developing topics protected area managers and local communities are struggling to balance the need for economic growth with the preservation of natural resources.

Eco-Tourism may offer one way of striking this critical balance well planned Eco-Tourism can benefit both protected areas and resident of surrounding communities by linking long-term biodiversity conservation with local, social and economic development.

Since the essence of Eco-tourism lies in admiration of nature and outdoor recreation, it encompasses a wide range of activity such as trekking, hiking, mountaineering, bird watching, boating, rafting, exploration and visiting wildlife sanctuaries. In that it is a bin to adventure tourism with the difference that whereas adventure tourism looks for thrill, Eco-Tourism ensures satisfaction. It's inspirational and emotional aspects are valued because it does not aim at consumptive erosion of natural resources.

SOLUTION OF THIS PROBLEM

India is one of seven bio diverse countries of the world and has a rich culture heritage. It has a vast potential of Eco-Tourism that needs to be tapped for economic benefits as well as for healthy conservation and preservation of nature. In the international year of Eco-Tourism some important decisions were taken by the promote Eco-Tourism.

It is becoming evident that increased tourism to sensitive natural areas in the absence of appropriate planning and management can become a threat to the integrity of both eco-system and local culture. An increasing number of eco-logically, any programs for tourism development should have the underlying objective of promoting the positive impacts and mitigating the negative impacts on the social, economic and physical environments of the designated areas. However, this same growth creates significant opportunities for both conservation and the local community benefit. Eco-Tourism can provide the much-needed revenues for the protection of national parks and other natural areas, revenues that might not be available for other source. In south and south-east Asia, most of the revenues that might not be available for other source. In South and South-East Asia, most of the archaeological and historical preservation-taking place can be economically justified because they provide attraction for tourists. In some cases, such as in Sri-Lanka, the admission fee paid by tourists is used directly for archaeological research and conservation.

Sensitive areas can lead to significant environmental degradation likewise, local communities and indigenous cultures can be harmed in numerous ways by an influx of foreign visitors and wealth.

HOW IT IS USEFUL AND HARMFUL

India is one the seven-biodiversity countries of the world and has a rich culture heritage. It has a vast potential for Eco-Tourism that needs to be tapped for economic benefits as well as for healthy conservation and preservation of nature. In the international year of Eco-Tourism, some important decisions were taken by government and private sectors to promote Eco-Tourism.

It is becoming evident that increased tourism to sensitive natural areas in the absence of appropriate planning and management can become a threat to the integrity of both eco-systems and local cultures. An increasing umber of visitors to ecologically sensitive areas can lead to significant environmental degradation. Likewise local communities and indigenous culture can be harmed in numerous ways by an influx of foreign visitors and wealth.

Any program for tourism development should have the underlying objective of promoting the positive impacts. The negative impacts on the social, economic and the physical environment of the designated areas. However, this same growth creates significant opportunities for both conservation and local communities benefit. Eco-Tourism can provide the much needed revenues for the protection of national parks and other sources. In South and Southeast Asia, most of the archaeological and historical preservation-taking place can be economically justified because they provide attraction for tourists. In same cases such as in Sri-Lanka, the admission fee paid by tourists is used directly for archaeological research and conservation. Conservation and revitalization of traditional arts, handicrafts, dance, music, drama, customs and ceremonies and certain aspects of traditional lifestyle directly feed into tourism.

In the mountain context ecological stability, viable economy, energetic efficiency, resilience, farmers, security and social justice should be the main indicators of sustainability. Keeping this in mind the planning of any eco-tourism policy in its macro, meso and micro dimensions should give utmost importance to the empowerment of the Local communities. The inherent qualities of Hillman, which the have developed in the mountain environment-courage, handwork, honesty and

The ability to take fast decision should grow as these are the capitals of mankind only four percent people live in ten percent area of hilly terrain all over the world, but they decide the destinies of the forty percent living in the foothills. This means that the planning and development of tourism infrastructure, its subsequent operation and its marketing should focus on environmental, social, cultural and economic sustainability criteria. But unfortunately the mountains in India are experiencing an inexorable decline in the resource base for local subsistence and a terrible deterioration in the already fragile environment. The results are landslides and frequent floods in the densely populated plains to the South of the Himalayas region in the Ganga and Brahmaputra basins. In the Kumaon Himalayas in the last few decades, there has been unprecedented growth in human population and a corresponding rise in development activities, including housing, industry, agriculture, mining and communications. Consequently, there has been a rapid shrinkage in the size of the remaining natural habitats and forests. The tourism industry has succeeded in adding an impact to the immense deforestation activities. Together with the construction of roads and buildings the movement of heavy vehicles is maintaining degenerating pressure on the already weakened mountains. Trekking is the latest craze with the youth. Trekking for them means just climbing up and down over treacherous terrier and not following the basic rules of civics and hygiene that go with sport. Trekking enthusiasts thus leave in their wake mounds of garbage an ecological destruction. As a result even remote places like Yamunotri, Ganga, Kedarnath and Gaumukh have been subjected to destruction. Since the essence of eco-tourism lies in admiration of nature and outdoor recreation, it encompassed a wide range of activities such of trekking, hiking, mountaineering, bird watching boating, rafting, biological exploration and visiting wildlife sanctuaries. In that whereas adventure tourism looks for thrill, Eco-Tourism ensures satisfaction its inspirational and emotional aspects are valued.

SOME CASES SHOWING THAT IT IS HARMFUL

Unfortunately the mountains in India are experiencing an inexorable decline in the resource base for local subsistence and a terrible deterioration in the already fragile environment. The results are landslides and frequent floods in the Himalayan region in the Ganga and Brahmaputra basins. In the Kumaon Himalayas, in the last few decades, there has been unprecedented growth in human population and corresponding rise in development activities including housing industry, agriculture, mining and communications. Consequently there has been a rapid shrinkage in the size of the remaining natural habitats and forests.

The tourism industry has succeeded in adding an impetus to the immense deforestation activities. Together with the construction of roads and building the movement of heavy vehicles is maintaining degenerating pressure on the already weekend mountains. Trekking is the latest craze with the youth. Trekking for them means just climbing up and down over treachery terrain and not following the basic rules of civil and hygiene that go with this sport. Trekking enthryiasts thus leave in their wake mounds of garbage an ecological destruction. As a result, even remote places like Yamunotri; Gangotri, Kedarnath and Goumukh have been subjected to destruction.


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