FOOD ADULTERATION : INTRODUCTION
Food Adulteration : In our daily life there are so many unhygienic and contaminated things for our health. Most of our things our contaminated.
Even the food, which we eat, is adulterated. Now a question arises that what
is adulteration? The answer is that the deliberate contamination of food
material with low quality, cheap and non-edible or toxic substances is
called food adulteration. The substance, which lowers or degrades the
quality of food material, is called an adulterant. Adulteration brings a lot
of easy money for the traders, but it may spoil many lives. Food
adulteration can lead to slow poisoning and various kinds of diseases, which
can even result in death. Adulteration makes the food items used in our
daily life unsafe and unhygienic for use. An easy example of food
adulteration is vanaspati ghee in desi ghee. The traders use it for their
economic benefit without thinking about its effect on the common population
of our country, which consumes it. For preventing it our government has made
some certain commissions and laws. Still it prevails in our country on large
scale. Adulteration should be checked properly in common food items so as to
save people from its bad effects. Adulteration is the government and we for
the common people therefore something should do a type of curse against it.
Types of Food Adulteration
In India, the
most common type of food adulterations is of following types:
1. Milk :- It is adulterated by
the addition of water, starch, skim milk powder and removal of cream.
2. Ghee :- It is adulterated with vanaspati and animal
fats such as pig's fat. In order to improve the flavor of adulterated ghee
tributyrin is added.
3. Cereals :- Rice and wheat are mixed with stones sand
grit and mud to increase the bulk.
4. Flour :- Wheat flour is mixed with soapstone and
Bengal gram flour is adulterated with Kesari dal or lathyrus flour.
5. Pulses :- They are adulterated with Kesari Dal stones are added to pulses such as mott urad, and masoor. Toxic chemical such as
metanil yellow are added to old stocks of pulses to improve their colour
6. Edible Oil :- They are mixed with cheaper oil, toxic
oil (e.g. argemone oil) and mineral oil.
7. Honey :- It is adulterated with sugar and jaggery.
1. Glass Wares :
• Test Tube, Beaker, Slides
2. Food Samples.
• Ghee, Milk, Oil, Pulses samples.
3. Chemical Required
• Conc. HCl., Conc. Nitric Acid.
4. Test Tube stand.
Procedure for detection the Adulteration in the
Adulteration in the
food material can be detected in the following ways.
1. Vanaspti in Ghee :- Took one tea spoon full of liquid ghee. Added equal quantity of conc. HCl shook
this mixture in a test tube. Now added a pinch of common sugar. Shook it
well for about one minute and then allowed it to stand for 5 minute and
observed the result.
2. Water in milk sample:-
Put a drop of sample milk on a plain slide. Tittled the slide and observed
3. Agremone oil in edible
oil :- Took some amount of edible oil in a test tube. Poured 3-4 drops of
conc nitric acid. Shook it well and observed the result.
4. Metanil yellow in Dal :- Took 5 gms of
sample. Add 5ml of water and a few drops of dil. HCl and observed the
Table-A:- Detection of vanaspati in ghee
Ghee A Sample+Conc.
+ + +
HCl + Sugar Crimson colour
lower layer of the
Table-B:- Detection of water in Milk
Milk A Sample on a
titled the slide
+ + +
Table-C:- Detection of metanil yellow in dal
5gm of sample
+ + +
5ml of water +
Table-D:- detection of Argemone oil in edible oil
Edible Oil A 5 ml Sample
+ + + +
3 drops of
Edible Oil B
Edible Oil C
In Table A [Detection of Vanaspati in Ghee]
Ghee A : It gives most positive test, hence is most
Ghee B : It gives more positive test, hence is more
Ghee C : It gives negative test, hence is not
In Table B [Detection of Water in Milk]
Milk A : It gives positive test to small extant hence is
Milk B : It gives more positive test, hence is more
Milk C : It gives most positive test, hence is most
In Table C [Detection of Metanil Yellow in Dal]
Pulse A : It gives positive test, hence is adulterated.
Pulse B : It gives most negative test, hence is not
Pulse C : It gives more negative test, hence is not
In Table D [Detection of Argemone Oil in Edible Oil]
Edible Oil A : It gives most positive test, hence is most
Edible Oil B : It gives more positive test, hence is more
Edible Oil C : It gives positive test to small extent,
hence is least adulterated.