Chemistry Project Report on Polymers
Polymers, Modern Chemical Industry, Simple Organic Molecules, Macromolecules, Polymerization, Natural Polymers, Synthetic Polymers, Linear Polymers, Branched Chain Polymers, Three-dimensional Network Polymers, Addition Polymers, Condensational Polymers
Student of XII-Science (Chemistry)
Submitted to :
Lecturer in Chemistry
Sr. Sec. School
Chemistry Project Report on Polymers
This chemistry project report is on "Polymers" and all information about Modern Chemical Industry, Simple Organic Molecules, Macromolecules, Polymerization, Natural Polymers, Synthetic Polymers, Linear Polymers, Branched Chain Polymers, Three-dimensional Network Polymers, Addition Polymers, Condensational Polymers etc.
Project Report on Polymers
Polymers : Polymers is the chief products of modern chemical industry. Polymers from the backbone of the modern civilization. In almost all walks of life, starting from household utensils, clothes, furniture etc. to automobiles to space aircrafts, polymers are extensively use. Some of the things are provided by nature as such while most of the others are fabricated from natural resources by the people of different skills. For a common person rubber means the material used in types, plastics means material used in manufacture of electrical equipment. This is quite correct but the scientists and chemists thinkans perform investigation about it and its modified from is useful for society.
Simple organic molecules contain 30-40 units of carbon atom. Natural rubber has molecular mass of about 22000 units. Molecular mass of starch is 40000 units or higher. Molecular of protein have molecular range thousand up to million. The substance having high molecular mass was reluctantly accept in the early twentieth century. In the 1920's a German chemist Herman Staudinger (1882-1965) introduced the new tern-macromolecule of giant molecules. He also devised his own experiments to find out the molecular mass of polymers. For this valuable work, he was awarded Noble Prize for 1953.
Macromolecules, both natural and man-made, owe their great size to the fact that they are polymers (Greek-many parts); that is, each one is made up of a great many simpler units-identical to each other or at least chemically polymerization. The joining together of many small molecules to form very large molecules. The simple compound from which polymers are made are called monomers.
Classification of Polymers
- Classification Based Upon Sources.
- Classification Based Upon Structure.
- Classification Based Upon Synthesis.
- Classification Based Upon Molecular Forces.
Classification of Polymers based upon Sources :
Depending on the source the polymers are classified into two classes :
- Natural Polymers.
- Synthetic Polymers.
Natural Polymers :
The polymers obtained from nature i.e. from plants and animals are called Natural Polymers. These include starch cellulose proteins, nucleic acids and natural rubbers.
Synthetic Polymers :
The polymers synthesized by man in the laboratory are called Synthetic Polymers. These are long-chain organic, molecules containing thousands of monogenic units some of these polythene, polyesters, PVC, Teflon, Nylon, Bakellite and Decron.
Classification based upon Structure
On the bases of structure polymers are divided into three types :
Linear Polymers :In these polymers, the monomers are joined together to form long straight chains of polymer molecules. Some important example of linear polymers are high density polythene, nylon, polyesters etc.
Branched Chain Polymers :
In these polymers, the monomers units not only combine to produce the linear chain but also form branches along the main chain.
For example : Low density polythene, glycogen etc. are the Branched Chain Polymers.
Three-dimensional Network Polymers :
In these polymers the initially formed linear polymers chains are joined to form three dimensional network structure.
Classification based on Synthesis :
- Addition Polymers.
- Condensational Polymers.
Additional Polymerization and Additional Polymers :
When the monomer molecules are joined together to form long chain without the elimination of any by product the product formed is called an Additional Polymer and the process involved is called Addition Polymerization.
Condensation Polymers :
A large number of monomer molecules combined together usually with the loss of a simple molecule like water, ammonia and Co2 etc. in which formula of repeating structural unit is not same as that of monomer. e.g. Nylon66, Bakelite etc.
Internet Source :