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Project Report on Organic Farming
Defining “Organic” : Organic farming is an alternative
agricultural system which originated early in the 20th Century in reaction to
rapidly changing farming practices.
Organic farming is a method of crop and livestock
production that involves much more than choosing not to use pesticides,
fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones.
It is an integrated farming system that strives for
sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity
whilst, with rare exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, antibiotics,
synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, and growth hormones.
Organic production is a holistic system designed to
optimize the productivity and fitness of diverse communities within the
agro-ecosystem, including soil organisms, plants, livestock and people. The
principal goal of organic production is to develop enterprises that are
sustainable and harmonious with the environment.
"Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains
the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes,
biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of
inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation
and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and
a good quality of life for all involved..."
The general principles of organic production, from the
Canadian Organic Standards (2006), include the following:
protect the environment, minimize soil degradation and
erosion, decrease pollution, optimize biological productivity and promote a
sound state of health
maintain long-term soil fertility by optimizing conditions
for biological activity within the soil
maintain biological diversity within the system
recycle materials and resources to the greatest
extent possible within the enterprise
provide attentive care that promotes the health and meets
the behavioural needs of livestock
prepare organic products, emphasizing careful processing,
and handling methods in order to maintain the organic integrity and vital
qualities of the products at all stages of production
rely on renewable resources in locally organized
Organic farming promotes the use of crop rotations and cover
crops, and encourages balanced host/predator relationships. Organic residues and
nutrients produced on the farm are recycled back to the soil. Cover crops and
composted manure are used to maintain soil organic matter and fertility.
Preventative insect and disease control methods are practiced, including crop
rotation, improved genetics and resistant varieties. Integrated pest and weed
management, and soil conservation systems are valuable tools on an organic farm.
Organically approved pesticides include “natural” or other pest management
products included in the Permitted Substances List (PSL) of the organic
standards. The Permitted Substances List identifies substances permitted for use
as pesticides in organic agriculture. All grains, forages and protein
supplements to livestock must be organically grown.
The organic standards generally prohibit products of
genetic engineering and animal cloning, synthetic pesticides, synthetic
fertilizers, sewage sludge, synthetic drugs, synthetic food processing aids
and ingredients, and ionizing radiation. Prohibited products and practices
must not be used on certified organic farms for at least three years prior
to harvest of the certified organic products. Livestock must be raised
organically and fed 100 per cent organic feed ingredients.
Organic farming presents many challenges. Some crops are
more challenging than others to grow organically; however, nearly every
commodity can be produced organically.
Project report Organic Agriculture
Project report Successful Organic Farming
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