Project Report / Essay - PETROLEUM
PETROLEUM is a dark coloured, viscous, and foul smelling crude oil.
The name of petroleum means rock oil (petra=rock ; oleum=oil). It is found under
the crust of earth trapped in rocks .The
crude oil petroleum is a complex mixture of several solid, liquid and gaseous
hydrocarbons mixed with water, salt and earth particles.
Thus, the crude petroleum oil is not a single chemical compound,
it is a mixture of compounds. Petroleum is lighter than water and insoluble in
it. Petroleum is a natural product obtained from oil wells.
ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM
Petroleum oil was formed by the decomposition of the remains of extremely small
plants and animals (micro-organisms) buried under the sea millions of years ago.
It is believed
that millions of years ago, the microscopic plants and animals (or
micro-organism) which lived in seas, died. Their bodies sank to bottom of sea
and were soon covered with mud and sand.
The chemical effects of pressure, heat and bacteria, converted the remains
of microscopic plants and animals onto petroleum oil just as they converted
forest trees into coal. This
conversion took place in absence of oxygen or air. The petroleum thus formed got
trapped between two layers of impervious rocks (non-porous rocks) forming an oil
trap. Natural gas is above this petroleum oil.
Petroleum occurs deep down under the earth between two layers of impervious
rocks (non-porous rocks). Oil deposites are usually found mixed with water, salt
and sand (earth-particles).Natural gas occurs above the petroleum oil trapped
under the rocks.
PETROLEUM is obtained by drilling holes (oil wells) into earth’s crust
where the presence of oil has been predicted by survey. When a well is
drilled through the rocks, natural gas comes out first with a great pressure and
for a time, the crude oil comes out by itself due to gas pressure. After the
pressure has subsided, the crude oil is pumped out of the oil wells. It should
be noted that many wells yield only natural gas but no oil. So, hundreds of
wells may have to be drilled into the rocks and tested before getting an oil
well from which oil can be produced profitably.
PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM IN INDIA
Some of the places in our country where petroleum oil is being
produced from the oil wells are
1.Ankeleshwar and Kalol in Gujrat
2 Rudra Sagar and Lakwa in Assam
3. Mumbai high (off store area)
There are two government for exploration of production and
petroleum oil in India . These are :
1.Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC)
2. Oil India Limited (OIL)
Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) is a major government
organization engaged in the exploration and production of the oil in India. It
was established in 1956 . ONGC is exploring and production oil from land
(on-shore) and sea-side (off-shore) areas of country . A recent achievement of
ONGC is the production of oil from Mumbai High seas. The other organization, Oil
India Limited, was established in 1981 . It is working in the Eastern region,
Mahandi Basin and Rajasthan.
REFINING OF PETROLEUM
The crude petroleum oil is a complex mixture of alkene
hydrocarbons with water, salt and earth particles. So, before it can be used for
specific purposes, it has to be purified or refined.
process of separating crude petroleum oil into more useful fractions is called
refining. The refining of petroleum is done by the process of fractional
In other words, petroleum is separated into its constituents by the process of
fractional distillation. The refining of petroleum or separation of petroleum
into different components is based on the fact that the different components of
crude oil have different ‘boiling point’ ranges. The fractional distillation
of petroleum is done by using a tall fractionating tower .
The crude petroleum oil is heated to a temperature of about
400oC in a furnance and the vapours thus formed are passed into a
tall fractionating column from near its bottom. As the mixture of hot vapors
rises in the column, it starts getting cooled gradually. Due to this, the
vaporous of higher boiling fractions of petroleum condense first in the lower
part of the tower, but the vapours of the low boiling fractions rise up into the
tower and condense later. In this way
fraction of petroleum having highest boiling point range is collected in the
lowest part of the fractionating tower, whereas the fraction having lowest
boiling point range is collected in the topmost part of the tower.
PRODUCTS OF PETROLEUM
The various fractions or products obtained by the fractional
distillation of petroleum, their moleculer compositions, boiling ranges and uses
are given below.
The moleculer composition of petroleum gas is from C1 to C4
hydrocarbons i.e., it contains hydrocarbons having 1 to 4 carbon atoms per
molecule its boiling range is below 40o C. Petroleum gas is used as
fuel as such or in form of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Petroleum gas is also
used in the production of carbon black (needed in tyre industry) and of hydrogen
industry). It is also used in the manufacture of gasoline (petrol) by the
process of polymerization.
2.GASOLINE OR PETROL:-
The moleculer composition of gasoline is from C5 to C10
hydrocarbons and its boiling range is 40o C to 170o C.
Gasoline or petroleum is used as in fuel in motor cars, scooters, motor-cycles
and other light vehicles. Petrol is also used as a solvent; for dry cleaning
clothes, and for making petrol gas. Petrol is more volatile than Kerosene oil.
The moleculer composition of Kerosene oil is from C10
to C12 hydrocarbons and its boiling range is from 1700 C
to 2500 C. Kerosene oil is used as a household fuel. For examples
Kerosene is used in wick stoves or pressure stoves to cook food. Kerosene is
also used as an illuminant (for lighting purposes) in hurricane or petromax
lamps. Kerosene is also used for making oil gas. A special grade of Karosene oil
is used as ‘activation oil’ in jet airplanes.
The moleculer composition of diesel oil is from C13 to
C15 hydrocarbons and its boiling. Diesel oil is used as a fuel for
heavier vehicles like buses, trucks, railway engines and ships. Diesel is also
used to run water pumps required for irrigation in fields and diesel generators
to produce electricity on small scale.
The moleculer composition of fuel oil is from C15 to C18
hydrocarbons and range is 350o C to 400o C. Fuel oil is
used in industries to heat boilers and in furnances. Fuel oil is better oil than
than coal because fuel oil is completely and does not need any residue. On other
hand , When coal is burned , it leaves behind a lot of ash which has to be
removed from the coal furnance.
The moleculer composition of lubricant oil is C17 to C20
hydrocarbons, and its boiling range is beyond 400o C. Lubricant oil
is obtained during the fractionation of residual oils. It is used for lubricant
The moleculer composition of paraffin wax is from C20
to C30 hydrocarbons and its boiling range is above 400o C.
Paraffin wax is also obtained during the further fractionation of residual oils.
Paraffin wax is used for making candles, Vaseline, ointments, wax papers and
Asphalt is a black, sticky substance having moleculer composition
of C30 to C50 hydrocarbons. Asphalt is a non-volatile
substance, so it does not vaporize. It is left behind as a residue in the
fractionation of residue oils. Asphalt is used for making road surfaces.