Project Report on A.I.D.S.
Introduction of HIV AIDS
What is AIDS ?
This is Project Report/Essay - HIV AIDS. Definition : Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. It is a pandemic disease. AIDS cannot be compared to disease like malaria and cholera which claim more live
in country currently. It has a greater impact than other disease. The
treatment options are still in the initial stages and are prohibitively
expensive. There are instances of quacks taking advantage of the situation.
This has compounded the misery of AIDS patients.
History of HIV AIDS:
first noticed in USA in 1981. The American and French scientist
independently identified the AIDS virus 1984. The virus first named as HCLV
III ( Human cell leukemia virus III). The name (Human cell leukemia
deficiency virus) is now preferred. It now seems that HIV first passed into
human from chimpanzees by eating butchered chimps. 10% of the people,
who get AIDS virus infection, actually develop full blown AIDS.
Causes of AIDS
The main causes of AIDS is
a disorder of cell mediated immune system of the body. The disorder is
characterized by a reduction in the number of helper. T-cell which
stimulate antibody production by B-cells. This result in the loss of natural
defense against viral infection.
Transmission of AIDS Virus
only transmitted by a direct contact of infected cells - containing
blood of patient to the blood of a healthy person as in -
1) Sexual intercourse with an infected partner if there is tissue
injury to permit blood contact.
2) Use of contaminated needles and syringes to inject drugs or
3) Use of contaminated razors, needles for boring pinnae.
4) Transfusion of infected blood or blood product.
5) Organ transplant.
6) Artificial insemination.
7) Parturition from mother to baby due to rupturing of blood vessels.
of transmission account for over 75% of infections.
AIDS is not a contagious disease. It does not spread by casual
contact, such as handshake , body contact in crowded places, working
or playing together , sharing clothes , eating food cooked by infected
person, using same toilet, swimming pools. It is also not and ribovirin seem
most promising. A drugs named zide vuidine prolongs the life of many AIDS
patient. However some patients AIDS virus have already mutated to zidovudine
100 to 140 nm. in diameter and has a cylindrical core. It is found in blood
and semen and to a lesser extent in milk tears and saliva. It is a
retrovirus, i.e. its genetic material is - RNA (single stranded linear)
which can make a DNA copy of itself with the help of the reverse
transcriptase enzyme. The virus bind specifically to a surface receptor on a
helper T-cell and introduce its RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme into
the cells here it multiplies and the release of new virus destroys the cell.
AIDS occurs when the helper T-cell falls too low to fight the disease.
Screening Test of AIDS
Patient generally have circulating antibodies which can be detected. In many
countries this test is done as a routine on blood, donor, screening may
prove harmful to victims. Persons found to be HIV positive become depressed
and suicidal and are denied insurance, evicted from their houses, fired from
their jobs only a small minority of such persons are likely to develop full
blown AIDS. However the infected persons may spread infection to others.
‘ELISA’ test is done identify this pandemic disease (AIDS).
Manifestation of AIDS
can manifest in two major ways -
Maligent tumours in connective tissue
Viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungalin-fection of any system of the body.
There are destruction of WBC’S, damage to brain,. unexplained fever,
unexplained loss of appetite, unexplained loss weight over a short
time, chronic diarrhea, cough, night sweats, enlargement of lymph glands,
shortness of breath, weakness.
Medical treatment of AIDS
consist of :
Antiviral therapy against the causative agent
Immuno simulative therapy to increase the number of resistance - providing
cells in the body or both. However no specific treatment has been
found so far and the mortality form AIDS is virtually 100%. A victim of full
blown AIDS dies with in 3 year from infection of many drugs tried,
azithmidine transmitted by blood sucking insects such as mosquitoes,
AIDS virus has been found in urine, tears saliva, breast milk and vaginal
secretions, but is seems not to transmitted by these fluids unless it gets a
Preventions from AIDS
Following steps may help in controlling this dreaded disease.
People particularly those in high risk group should be educated about AIDS
High risk group should refrain from blood donation.
Disposable needles and syringes should be used.
Sexual habits should changed immediately.
v) Before receiving blood, ensure that it has been screened for HIV.
Routine screening may be done in
Donors of semen and growth hormone,
Patient receiving haemodialysis
e) Females in high risk group, Who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy.
Chastity, life long monogamy, and a clean needle for each injection are the
only ways to prevents the spread of AIDS. These measure will succeed only in
persons not already infected.
Major causes & steps to prevent it
Reasons of spreading AIDS among world people
than 90% of the infected persons are belong to developing countries.
Low-level of socio-economic development.
Low health consciousness and facilities
A growing unmarried youth population due to delayed marriage
High rate of labour migration.
Low level of literacy among high-risk groups.
(vi) High incidence of sexuality transmitted diseases and
reproductive tract infections among men and women.
Steps taken to prevent the spreading of AIDS :
National AIDS programme of south East Asian countries are beginning to yield
encouraging results. The 100% condom use programme in Thailand and the
Sonagachi project in Calcutta, a model peer education programme among sex
workers, have helped bring down AIDS infection and also reduced
the incidence of STD.
Non-government organizations have brought Baptist interest litigations
against such cases of discrimination and the courts have pronounced the
rights of such peoples. This has helped alleviate the misery of affected
After studying the cause and effects of ‘AIDS’ from different views, we
conclude that it is a pandemic disease. It is mainly spreading
sexually and person of the age group of 25-45 years are the most affected
group. There are some methods like ‘Antiviral Therapy’ and Immuno
Stimulative therapy which bring some hope that even then no specific
treatment has been found so for and morality form is virtually 100%.
So only prevention in the test medicine care.
AIDS immersed as pandemic disease. It is nondurable. It is
more common in developing countries. Now every day 1000 peoples are
going to become HIV infected in world. This is mainly due to blood
transfusion & Sexual contact. In whole world about 3 crore 30 lakhs
people are HIV +ve & in India 3 lakh 70 thousands are HIV +ve. The
number of HIV +ve persons are higher in Tamilnadu Bombay, Calcutta and
Kerala and Manipur.
Problems for Patient
AIDS cause disease of Immune system of body. The HIV cause damage to T
& B cell. Thus this is becoming a threatening problem
of today and of future.
AIDS is non curable due to its nature of pathogen. It also damage
immune system of the body. Therefore any medicine (Antiviral) drugs are not
effective against HIV virus. Ignorance and lack of knowledge about
this disease is the root cause of wide spread of this disease.
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