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Project Report on HIV A.I.D.S.


Introduction of HIV AIDS

 

What is AIDS ?

This is Project Report on HIV AIDS. Definition : Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. It is a pandemic disease. AIDS cannot be compared to disease like malaria and cholera which claim more live in country currently. It has a greater impact than other disease. The treatment options are still in the initial stages and are prohibitively expensive. There are instances of quacks taking advantage of the situation. This has compounded  the misery of AIDS patients.

History of HIV AIDS:

It was first noticed in USA in 1981. The American and French scientist independently identified the AIDS virus 1984. The virus first named as HCLV III ( Human cell leukemia virus III). The name (Human cell leukemia deficiency virus) is now preferred. It now seems that HIV first passed into human from chimpanzees by eating butchered chimps. 10%  of the people, who get AIDS  virus infection, actually develop full blown AIDS.

Causes of AIDS

The main causes of AIDS is a disorder of cell mediated immune system of the body. The disorder is characterized by a reduction in the number of helper. T-cell which  stimulate antibody production by B-cells. This result in the loss of natural defense against  viral infection.

Transmission of AIDS Virus

It is only transmitted by a  direct contact of infected cells - containing blood of patient to the blood of a healthy person as in -

1)   Sexual intercourse with an infected partner if there is tissue injury to permit blood contact. 

2)   Use of contaminated needles and syringes to inject drugs or vaccines.

3)   Use of contaminated razors, needles  for boring pinnae.

4)   Transfusion of infected blood or blood product.

5)   Organ transplant.

6)   Artificial insemination.

7)   Parturition from mother to baby due to rupturing of blood vessels.

Note :    The sexual of transmission account for over 75% of infections.

AIDS is not a contagious disease. It does not spread  by casual contact,  such as handshake , body contact in crowded places, working or playing  together , sharing clothes , eating food cooked by infected person, using same toilet, swimming pools. It is also not and ribovirin seem most promising. A drugs named zide vuidine prolongs the life of many AIDS patient. However some patients AIDS virus have already mutated to zidovudine resistant forms.

Introduction of aids virus

It is 100 to 140 nm. in diameter and has a cylindrical core. It is found in blood and semen and to a lesser extent in milk tears and saliva. It is a retrovirus, i.e. its genetic material is - RNA (single stranded linear) which can make a DNA copy of itself with the help of the reverse transcriptase enzyme. The virus bind specifically to a surface receptor on a helper T-cell and introduce its RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme into the cells here it multiplies and the release of new virus destroys the cell. AIDS occurs when the helper T-cell falls too low to fight the disease.

Screening Test of AIDS

AIDS Patient generally have circulating antibodies which can be detected. In many countries this test is done as a routine on blood, donor, screening may prove harmful to victims. Persons found to be HIV positive become depressed and suicidal and are denied insurance, evicted from their houses, fired from their jobs only a small minority of such persons are likely to develop full blown AIDS. However the infected persons may spread infection to others.

 Today ‘ELISA’ test is done identify this pandemic disease (AIDS).

Manifestation of AIDS

Manifestation :-  It can manifest in two major ways -

i)     Maligent tumours in connective tissue

ii)    Viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungalin-fection of any system of the body. There are destruction of WBC’S, damage to brain,. unexplained fever, unexplained loss of appetite, unexplained  loss weight over a short time, chronic diarrhea, cough, night sweats, enlargement of lymph glands, shortness of breath, weakness.

AIDS Treatment :-   Medical treatment of AIDS consist of :

i)     Antiviral therapy against the causative agent

ii)    Immuno simulative therapy to increase the number of resistance - providing cells in the body or both. However  no specific treatment has been found so far and the mortality form AIDS is virtually 100%. A victim of full blown AIDS dies with in 3 year from infection of many drugs tried, azithmidine  transmitted by blood sucking insects such as mosquitoes, AIDS virus has been found in urine, tears saliva, breast milk and vaginal secretions, but is seems not to transmitted by these fluids unless it gets a cut.

Preventions from AIDS

 Following steps may help in controlling this dreaded disease.

i)   People particularly those in high risk group should be educated about AIDS transmission.

ii) High risk group should refrain from blood donation.

iii)     Disposable needles and syringes  should be used.

iv)     Sexual habits should changed immediately.

v) Before receiving blood, ensure that it has been screened for HIV.

vi)     Routine screening may be done in

a) Blood Donors,

b) Organ Donors

c) Donors of semen and growth hormone,

d) Patient receiving haemodialysis

e) Females in high risk group, Who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy.

     Chastity, life long monogamy, and a clean needle for each injection are the only ways to prevents the spread of AIDS. These measure will succeed only in persons not already infected.

Major causes & steps to prevent it

Reasons of spreading AIDS among world people

More than 90% of the infected persons are belong to developing countries.

REASONS :-

(i) Low-level of socio-economic development.

(ii)    Low health consciousness and facilities

(iii)  A growing unmarried youth population due to delayed marriage

(iv)    High rate of labour migration.

(v)     Low level of literacy among high-risk groups.

(vi)   High incidence  of sexuality transmitted diseases and reproductive tract infections among men and women.

Steps taken to prevent the spreading of AIDS :

(i) National AIDS programme of south East Asian countries are beginning to yield encouraging results. The 100% condom use programme in Thailand and the Sonagachi project in Calcutta, a model peer education programme among sex workers, have helped  bring down AIDS  infection and also reduced the incidence of STD.

(ii)    Non-government organizations have brought Baptist interest litigations against such cases of discrimination and the courts have pronounced the rights of such peoples. This has helped alleviate the misery of affected persons.

conclusion

After studying the cause and effects of ‘AIDS’ from different views, we conclude that it is a pandemic disease.  It is mainly spreading sexually and person of the age group of 25-45 years are the most affected group.  There are some methods like ‘Antiviral Therapy’ and Immuno Stimulative therapy which bring some hope that even then no specific treatment has been found so for and morality form is virtually 100%.  So only prevention in the test medicine care.


Observation

AIDS immersed as pandemic disease.   It is nondurable.  It is more common in developing countries.  Now every day 1000 peoples are going to become HIV infected in world.  This is mainly due to blood transfusion & Sexual contact.  In whole world about 3 crore 30 lakhs people are HIV +ve & in India 3 lakh 70 thousands are HIV +ve.  The number of HIV +ve persons are higher in Tamilnadu Bombay, Calcutta and Kerala and Manipur.

Problems for Patient

AIDS cause disease of Immune system of body.  The HIV cause damage to T & B cell.  Thus this is becoming a threatening problem of today and of future.

Hypothesis

AIDS is non curable due to its nature of pathogen.  It also damage immune system of the body. Therefore any medicine (Antiviral) drugs are not effective against HIV virus.  Ignorance and lack of knowledge about this disease is the root cause of wide spread of this disease.

 

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