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Project Report on Science and Technology
This project report is on Science and Technology, Technology Development in India, Science Planning in India, Space Research, Space applications, Research, Education and Information, Environmental Management, Environment Research Programme, Drip Irrigation System
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
I.T. Project Report
Project Report Name : Science and Technology
Type : School Project
Project Report on Science and Technology
Lesson - 1 - Science and TechnologyScience and Technology : Science is essentially 'knowledge' it is concerned with human understanding of the real world around - the inherent properties of space, matter, energy, and their interaction. It is the concomitant of the inquiring mind, wanting to unravel the mysteries of nature, unbiased fearless and free.
Science and technology are among the basic factors in the dividing wall between poverty and prosperity. There is no doubt that science and technology have shaped and reshaped India over the years. The result of research and experimentation is seen in the transformation of a subsistence agriculture into commercial agriculture : eradication of diseases like plague and smallpox ; establishment and rapid development of an industrial base ; development of electronics, nuclear energy capability, space exploration, oceanography, all being dovetailed to meet socio - economic needs.
Side-Effects of Rapid Technological Development :
Side-Effects of Rapid Technological Development : There
are some shortcomings. the dangerous side effects of rapid technological
development have to be seriously and earnestly faced and checked ; environmental
degradation, for instance, has to be prevented with the very help of the
science, has to be prevented with the very help of the science and technology
whose careless application can cause irreversible damage. Interaction between
the scientific community and the rest of the society must be encouraged so as to
avoid misdirected research and sub-optimal use of investment made. A better
management of resources is called for so that science.
Lesson - 2 - Policies and plans after Independence
Science Policy : Science policy resolution the aim of
this policy is to foster, promote and sustain the cultivation of the sciences
and scientific research in the country and to encourage industrial initiative
for dissemination of scientific knowledge, recognize the work of research
scientists and ensure that the creative talent of men and women is encouraged to
find full scope in scientific activity. Above all to secure for the people of
the country all the benefits that can accrue from the acquisition and
application of scientific knowledge.
Technology and Society
Technology and Society : In order to enable large
sections of our society to derive the benefits from science and technology, this
policy is directed to achieve a greater spread in the use of technological
developments. ensure accessibility of technological devices to al segments of
the society with special emphasis on remote and rural communities in order to
improve their quality of life. enhance infrastructural facilities. upgrade
traditional skills and reduce drudgery keeping in new the special needs of women
and the weaker sections of society.
Lesson - 3 - Space Research
Space Research : Space research is no longer considered
as a high tech venture whose costs make it an irrelevant luxury for a developing
country like India.
Lesson - 4 - Research, Education and Information
The environmental Research programme aims at developing strategies,
technologies and methodologies for better environmental management in India. It
also seeks to strengthen facilities and infrastructure to facilitate research
and training of manpower for undertaking environmental research. The programme
particularly aims at attempting solutions to the practical problems of resource
management and provides necessary inputs for development and formulation of
action plans for conservation of natural resources and restoration of degraded
The frame work convention on climate change a multilateral treaty to which in India, aims to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climatic system. As per the existing provisions, India is not required to adopt a national greenhouse gas or carbon dioxide reduction target. Developed country parties are required to adopt policies and take corresponding measures for mitigation of climate change and are bound by specific commitments laid down in the convention.
Environmental Information System : The Environmental information system has been set up as a decentralized information system network for collection, storage, retrieval and dissemination of environment information to decision-markers, policy-makers and general public.
International Ramifications in India : International Ramifications India is a signatory to several international agreements it realties relating to environment such as the convention on international trade in Endangered species, convention on wetlands of International Importance, especially as waterfowl habitat, convention on the conservation of Migratory species of wild animals, Vienna convention of the ozone layer, Montréal protocol on substances that Deplete the ozone layer, conventions on Biological diversity and climate change and the Basel convention on trans-boundary movement of Hazardous substances.
The ministry of environment and forests is the nodal agency in the country for united nations environment programme, Nairobi, South Asia, cooperative environmental programme, Colombo, international centre for integrate mountain development, Katmandu and the International Union for conservation of Nature and natural resources. Annual financial contributions are made to these organizations.
Global Environment Facility : Global environment facility though the concept of this facility proposed to fund the Post-Rio environment agenda. The Global environment facility is a financial mechanism that provides grants and low interest loans to developing countries to help them carry out programmes to relieve pressures on global ecosystems. The billion dollar plus fund supports international environmental management and the transfer of environmentally benign technologies.
The facility Global environment is a cooperative venture among national governments, the world bank, the United nations development programme and the united nations environment programme in the areas of climate change, biodiversity and pollution of International water. To quality for funding from the facility, a project must relate to at least one of its specific areas of concern. A further qualification is that a project would not be economically viable in the particular country without support from the facility. The ministry of environment and forests is the nodes point for this facility in India. So far, seven projects have been approved for GEF funding in the country in the areas of bio-diversity conservation alternate and renewable energy and energy efficient technologies.
Lesson - 5 - Modern Agriculture
Agriculture represents the first endeavor of human beings to control static
resources, that is, the bounty of the land. Modern agriculture has come a long
way since its beginnings : it is now a complex scientific activity aimed at
producing the maximum amount of food with the minimum expenditure of time, space
and energy to meet the needs of a growing population and economy. India is a
predominantly agrarian country, agriculture providing live hood to about 65 per
rent of the labour force and contributing nearly 29 per cent of the net national
product. Development of pearl culture technology the central marine fisheries
research institute has boosted its efforts at perfecting technologies for land -
based pearl culture.