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Project Report on Science and Technology

This project report is on Science and Technology, Technology Development in India, Science Planning in India, Space Research, Space applications, Research, Education and Information, Environmental Management, Environment Research Programme, Drip Irrigation System

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)

I.T. Project Report

Project Report Name : Science and Technology

Type : School Project

Project Report on Science and Technology


Lesson - 1 - Science and Technology

Science and Technology : Science is essentially 'knowledge' it is concerned with human understanding of the real world around - the inherent properties of space, matter, energy, and their interaction. It is the concomitant of the inquiring mind, wanting to unravel the mysteries of nature, unbiased fearless and free.

Science and technology are among the basic factors in the dividing wall between poverty and prosperity. There is no doubt that science and technology have shaped and reshaped India over the years. The result of research and experimentation is seen in the transformation of a subsistence agriculture into commercial agriculture : eradication of diseases like plague and smallpox ; establishment and rapid development of an industrial base ; development of electronics, nuclear energy capability, space exploration, oceanography, all being dovetailed to meet socio - economic needs.

Side-Effects of Rapid Technological Development :

Side-Effects of Rapid Technological Development : There are some shortcomings. the dangerous side effects of rapid technological development have to be seriously and earnestly faced and checked ; environmental degradation, for instance, has to be prevented with the very help of the science, has to be prevented with the very help of the science and technology whose careless application can cause irreversible damage. Interaction between the scientific community and the rest of the society must be encouraged so as to avoid misdirected research and sub-optimal use of investment made. A better management of resources is called for so that science.

Technology is the systematic knowledge and action usually of industrial processes but applicable to any recurrent activity. The term covers the practice, description and terminology of any or all of the applied sciences which have practical value and industrial use. It is closely related to engineering. If engineering is the application of objective knowledge to the creation of plans, designs and means for achieving descried objectives, technology deals with the tools and appended to the term technology these days- low, high, appropriate and so on.

Low technology generally refers to the application of scientific devices for different aspects of production. It does net displace labour. Intermediate technology refers to the production of finished goods and intermediary products.

High technology refers to the use of sophisticated and complex process and machinery, and is made as of in capital goods industries like steel, communications equipment space and nuclear installations etc. Appropriate technology, as the name suggests is suitable for given conditions of production available resources, technical know - how, needs etc.

Lesson - 2 - Policies and plans after Independence

Science Policy : Science policy resolution the aim of this policy is to foster, promote and sustain the cultivation of the sciences and scientific research in the country and to encourage industrial initiative for dissemination of scientific knowledge, recognize the work of research scientists and ensure that the creative talent of men and women is encouraged to find full scope in scientific activity. Above all to secure for the people of the country all the benefits that can accrue from the acquisition and application of scientific knowledge.

Technology policy as Indian science progressed, it was felt that newer indigenous technologies needed to be developed even as imported technologies were to be efficiently absorbed and adapted. The technology policy statement of 1983 grew out of the felt need for guidelines to cover a wide-ranging and complex set of related areas keeping in mind capital scarce character of developing economy. It aims at ensuring that the country's available natural endowments, especially human resources, are optimally utilized for continued increase in the well - being of all sections of people.

Technological advancement is sought to solve the country's multifarious problems and safeguard its independence and unity. Among is objectives are attainment of technological competence and self-reliance. Provision of gainful employment, making traditional skills commercially competitive, ensuring maximum development with minimum capital, modernization of equipment and technology, conservation of energy, ensuring harmony with environment etc.

Technology and Society

Technology and Society : In order to enable large sections of our society to derive the benefits from science and technology, this policy is directed to achieve a greater spread in the use of technological developments. ensure accessibility of technological devices to al segments of the society with special emphasis on remote and rural communities in order to improve their quality of life. enhance infrastructural facilities. upgrade traditional skills and reduce drudgery keeping in new the special needs of women and the weaker sections of society.

Technology Development : The technology information fore casting and assessment council was set up by the DST following the recommendations of the technology policy statement, 1983. TIFAC is an autonomous body whose objectives are to generate technology forecasting technology assessment and techno-market survey documents and to enable a technology information system which is interactive and nationally accessible. Technology forecasting and assessment studies have been carried out in areas of human settlement planning, building technology and skills, steel, sugar industry, materials technology and prospects for biotechnological products in India a by 2000 AD. New initiatives have been taken in surface engineering and high performance computational facilities among other things.

Science Planning in India : Science planning India has developed its own model of R & D Planning. The planning process adopted over the years is a two- way process involving broad policy guidelines from the planning commission, and ensuring interaction with scientists at national agency laboratory and university levels. This ensures the effective participation of the scientific community in decision making.

The process involves the following steps :

  • The government declares its policy guidelines and thrust areas, which are communicated to research agencies and institutions.
  • Specialized panels covering different branches of science, areas of rand D are asked to prepare plans in respective areas.
  • The heads of agencies and directors are advised to prepare plans, who is turn ask the working scientists to prepare the plan of work.
  • The plans are coordinated at laboratory level and discussed by scientific advisory panels of the respective laboratories.

Lesson - 3 - Space Research

Space Research : Space research is no longer considered as a high tech venture whose costs make it an irrelevant luxury for a developing country like India.

Indeed the benefits of space research have great relevance for the third world countries - revolutionizing communications, natural resources management. Study of agricultural potential, weather monitoring and disaster management further more the spin offs from space technology find applications in fields raining from food storage to open-heart surgery, from fishing to automobiles.

The Indian space programme is greed to the utilization of space technology for the socio-economic development of the country.

Space applications centre at Ahmedabad is involved in research and development in space applications. It has the primary responsibility to conceptualize, plan and execute projects and research programmes leading to practical use of space technology. The activities include satellite based telecommunications and TV and remote sensing for natural resources survey and management, environmental monitoring, meteorology and geodesy. The centre is organized functionally into satellite communications. Remote sensing and microwave remote sensing. Support services are provided by technical services group consisting of environmental test facilities, electronics and mechanical fabrication facilities and reliability and quality assurance group.

Developmental and Educational communication unit at Ahmedabad is involved in various areas of software research such as television programme production. Policy studies and research in society technology interaction. major takes of DECU include :

(a) Kheda communication Project
(b) Training of staff especially for Doordarshan
(c) Social research related to communication and
(d) policy and technology studies related to applications of space technology.

Progress of space Research :- The Indian space programme has come a long way from humble beginning of testing sundry rockets to acquiring the capability to launch giant polar satellite launch vehicles and putting various class remote sensing satellite in low earth orbits.

Lesson - 4 - Research, Education and Information

The environmental Research programme aims at developing strategies, technologies and methodologies for better environmental management in India. It also seeks to strengthen facilities and infrastructure to facilitate research and training of manpower for undertaking environmental research. The programme particularly aims at attempting solutions to the practical problems of resource management and provides necessary inputs for development and formulation of action plans for conservation of natural resources and restoration of degraded ecosystems.

Research projects are funded in multidisciplinary aspects of environment protection. Conservation and management at various universities, research and development institutions and reputed non-governmental organizations of the country. these are support under the following main schemes.,

  • Man and Biosphere.
  • Environment research programme.
  • Action - oriented research programme for eastern and western ghats and
  • Climate change
The MAB programme is an inter-disciplinary programme of project which emphasis interrelationship between man and the environment and seeks to generate needed scientific knowledge to manage. The natural resources in a sustainable manner. The ERP covers chemical, bio-chemical, engineering, technology development for waste minimization, waste recycling resource recovery and effluent treatment ; and environment management studies. The action-oriented research programme addresses itself to location. Specific problems of resource management in the Eastern and western ghat regions of the country.

The frame work convention on climate change a multilateral treaty to which in India, aims to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climatic system. As per the existing provisions, India is not required to adopt a national greenhouse gas or carbon dioxide reduction target. Developed country parties are required to adopt policies and take corresponding measures for mitigation of climate change and are bound by specific commitments laid down in the convention.

Environmental Information System : The Environmental information system has been set up as a decentralized information system network for collection, storage, retrieval and dissemination of environment information to decision-markers, policy-makers and general public.

International Ramifications in India : International Ramifications India is a signatory to several international agreements it realties relating to environment such as the convention on international trade in Endangered species, convention on wetlands of International Importance, especially as waterfowl habitat, convention on the conservation of Migratory species of wild animals, Vienna convention of the ozone layer, Montréal protocol on substances that Deplete the ozone layer, conventions on Biological diversity and climate change and the Basel convention on trans-boundary movement of Hazardous substances.

The ministry of environment and forests is the nodal agency in the country for united nations environment programme, Nairobi, South Asia, cooperative environmental programme, Colombo, international centre for integrate mountain development, Katmandu and the International Union for conservation of Nature and natural resources. Annual financial contributions are made to these organizations.

Global Environment Facility : Global environment facility though the concept of this facility proposed to fund the Post-Rio environment agenda. The Global environment facility is a financial mechanism that provides grants and low interest loans to developing countries to help them carry out programmes to relieve pressures on global ecosystems. The billion dollar plus fund supports international environmental management and the transfer of environmentally benign technologies.

The facility Global environment is a cooperative venture among national governments, the world bank, the United nations development programme and the united nations environment programme in the areas of climate change, biodiversity and pollution of International water. To quality for funding from the facility, a project must relate to at least one of its specific areas of concern. A further qualification is that a project would not be economically viable in the particular country without support from the facility. The ministry of environment and forests is the nodes point for this facility in India. So far, seven projects have been approved for GEF funding in the country in the areas of bio-diversity conservation alternate and renewable energy and energy efficient technologies.

Lesson - 5 - Modern Agriculture

Agriculture represents the first endeavor of human beings to control static resources, that is, the bounty of the land. Modern agriculture has come a long way since its beginnings : it is now a complex scientific activity aimed at producing the maximum amount of food with the minimum expenditure of time, space and energy to meet the needs of a growing population and economy. India is a predominantly agrarian country, agriculture providing live hood to about 65 per rent of the labour force and contributing nearly 29 per cent of the net national product. Development of pearl culture technology the central marine fisheries research institute has boosted its efforts at perfecting technologies for land - based pearl culture. 

Pearl Culture Technology : Pearl Culture Technology comprised three phases seed production in hatcheries, nursery of seeds, mother oyster farming and culture of implanted oysters, the last two phases are carried out at sea where pearl farms were established.

Drip Irrigation System : Drip Irrigation System, Fawara Technology are also used in agriculture field for increase the production. Govt. of India announced 90% subsidy for farmers to use Drip Irrigation System in their agriculture field.



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