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Project Report / Essay - Our Environment

The term environment refers to a set of surrounding natural conditions, which surrounds an organism and influences its life many ways. It can also be defined as the living and non-living factors that surround a given organism or community or organisms. So, our environment consists of two main components.

Habitat and Adaptation: -

The literally mean’s of habitat so the ‘living’ or a twilling place of an organism. It must offer of the food, shelter and other climatic conditions needed for the survival breeding and flourishing the organism to cope with the habitat, the organism has to be well fitted with species structures is called adaptive characters.

1) Adaptation in plants:-

  • Hydrophytes
  • Masochists
  • Xerophytes


The plants, which live abundance of water, are known as hydrophytes. They may be free fluting, rooted and looting rooted and Submerged, submerged A hydrophytes has to stay and flourish in water so it has to adapt for Buoyancy as well as agonizes decaying they have the following adaptive


  • The roots in hydrophytes becomes less significant due to availability of water.
  • The stem may be reduced or may be spongy long and flexible.
  • The conducting tissue i.e. Xylem and phloem are poorly developed
  • He kavas plants are thin, long, ribbon shaped or linear such kavas provide Least resistance to flowing water.

B) Masochists: -

  • The plants, which require moderate amount of water, are known as Helophytic plants e.g. raised, mango.
  • These plants are usually found in the plains and gardens they have the following adaptive features-:
  • The stems are thick, solid and highly branched The kavas are large broad, thin and variously shaped

C) Xerophytes: -

  • Plants, which live in dry conditions, are known as xerophytes the scarcity of water may be of two types
    A) Physical in which there is actual shortage of water
    B) Physiological in which water is present but plants are not able to absorb it. The adaptive features of xerophytes are :-
  • They have very extensive and well develop root system
  • The stems are mostly spongy and succulent, which helps in storage of water
  • The tem and leaf surface have thick cuticle with a covering oven waxy substance.
  • Stomata are less in number and are sunken.

Adaptation and habitat in animals

There are diverse groups of animals, which are found in different habitats. These animals possess various adaptive features (morphological, physiological, anatomical) to enable them to survive in their respective habitat.

(a) Terrestrial: - ado [tatopanimals living on land are known as terrestrial organisms.] The terrestrial habitat is a discontinuous habitat terrestrial organisms are subjected to a variety of physical factors like temperature, light rainfall, etc.

Terrestrial animals may be diggers, may be diggers, climbers runners burrowers and fliers. The adaptive features of terrestrial animals are-

  • They respire by lungs. For example – lizards birds, all mammals, frog and toad
  • They exhibit different types of adaptations depending on their food and feeding habits. Cockroaches and grasshoppers have cutting and chewing type of moth parts; snakes can swallow much larger prey as a whole; leech has rasping jaws and auctorial moth (to suck blood of host.)
  • In snakes and shrews, head and snout is tapering. (This is an adaptation for burrowing and digging.)

(b) Aquatic adaptation: - Those organisms that live in water show aquatic adaptations. Various aquatic Bodies are ponds, lakes, steams, rivers and oceans. The aquatic habitats offer a Number of physic chemical factors like availability of oxygen, penetration of Light. Animals may live in water primarily of they have shifted to water habitat. Later on as a secondary adaptation. The adaptive features of aquatic organisms are-

  1. Body an compressed laterally to reduce friction
  2. Hair and skin gains like sweets glands are absent
  3. Aquatic animals possess the ability to feed in water
  4. Swim bladder in certain fish is filled with air and maintains buoyancy

(c) Aerial adaptation: - Some animals come to the trees for safety and shelter but in mainly on land they are small in no. and categorized as arboreal. They are flying squirrel, flying; oars tree frogs mad lemurs the birds and bats are truly Adapted for airier mode of life aerial adaptation Volant animals have certain

Adaptive features that enable them to fly in the air for a long time

1) Forelimbs are modified into wings for flying in air

2) Bones with air cavities to make body light

3) Flight muscles are present to provide additional strength for winged flight for e.g. Birds.

4) Biosphere: -

Biosphere extends to about 22.5 km in thickness from ocean bottom to the mountain tops all parts of the biosphere are not equally in habituated maximum density of organisms is found in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. The biological system. It consists of no. Small functional units are known as ecosystem. The biosphere consists of four Parts: -

  1. Lithosphere
  2. Hydrosphere
  3. Atmosphere

(1) Lithosphere: - It is the solid outer portion of the earth , containing soil and rocks. It forms the crust of earth

(2) Hydrosphere: - The region of water on the surface of earth is called Hydrosphere most of the water is found in ocean

(3) Atmosphere: - It is the gaseous mottle that envelops the biosphere and Outlines both lithospheres saw well as hydrosphere

Lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere comprises of biotic component Of the environment biosphere is considered largest biological system because it is made up of all the non-living and living components on the earth each components performs a certain function the biosphere is called a biotical System has different components, which receive, certain inputs undergo Interaction and give some output



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