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Project Report on Heart / Heart Beat
This project report is entitled "Heart" and all information about Heart, Heart Beat, Internal and External Structure of Heart, Working, Efficiency, Heart Beat, Heart Sound.
Heart is soft, spongy, hollow, muscular organ and wall is made up of
cardiac muscles. It is about the size of 1st fist (12 x 9 cm) and about 300
grams in weight. It is conical in shape and upper surface of heart is broad and
lower surface of the heart is narrow.
Heart is surrounded by two protective coverings called
pericardium. Inner pericardium is called visceral pericardium & outer
pericardium is called partial pericardium. Between the two pericardium is a
space called pericardial cavity. This cavity is filled of fluid called
pericardial fluid. This fluid is filled secreted by pericardium itself. This
fluid moistened the heart and allows free and frictionless movement of heart.
Heart is divided into two halves by a septum. Each
half have two communicating chamber called Auricles and ventricles. Thus heart
is four chambered.
These are the upper part of the heart and Auricles are separated by
externally from ventricles by a groove called coronary sulcus.
Ventricles forms lower part of the heart and separated from each
other by inter ventricles septum.
Internal Structure of HeartAuricles :
Auricles have thin valves because they have to pump the blood to
ventricles which are nearest to them. Inner surface of Auricles is smooth or
having low elevation. It opens into ventricles and internally two auricles are
separated by inter-ventricular septum.
Ventricle's wall is thick which is more in left ventricles because the right ventricles has to pump the blood to lungs and left ventricles pump the blood to the farthest and of the body with pressure. Therefore they have thick walls. The inner surface of ventricles have low muscular ridges called 'Papillary' columnal carnae and high muscular ridges elevation called papillary muscles. Two ventricles are separated by Inter-ventricular septum.
Great Blood Vessels, Aperture and Valves :
The blood vessels which enter or
leave the heart is called great blood vessels. The right auricles receives two
main vein called superior and inferior. Vena cava which collects from head
region and lower portion of the body respectively. There opening inside the
right auricle is guarded by valve called valve of Vena-Cava. A vein called
coronary vein receives blood from the valve of heart itself.
Heart is a double pump and undergoes regular contraction and
relaxation. The contraction of heart is called systole and the relaxation of
heart is called Diastole. The heart shows three events. The three events i.e.
Auricular systole. Ventricular systole and joint diastole forms a cycle called
In this stage both auricles and ventricles are in relaxed
stage. The volume of the heart is more and blood is less. The blood flows from
great veins in to their respective auricles. Some blood also passes into
Ventricles as the A-V aperture remains open.
Now the auricles contracts and contraction of auricles is
called auricular systole. Due to this pressure of the blood in the auricles
rises and blood moves from auricles to ventricles & does not move back into
great blood vessels as their opening get closed. Also the contraction of heart
starts from its upper end to the lower end, therefore pushes the blood into
Now ventricles contracts and due to contraction of
ventricles area of ventricles decreases. Pressure of blood rises in the
ventricles above that of auricles due to of A-V aperture get closed.
The heart is supplied by an artery called coronary Artery
which supplies pure blood to the wall of heart. As the heart works throughout
life (It does more work) it requires more energy and material oxygen. The heart
wall gives a vein called coronary veins which removes waste products from the
wall of the heart in the right auricles.
Heart keeps on beating throughout the life but it does not
fatigued. The heart first contracts and then relaxes. After relaxation it
undergoes a period of rest before contraction. It rests doubled the time it
works. Therefore heart does not fatigues.
It is the spontaneous contraction and relaxation of heart to pump
out & receive blood to and from the body is called heart beat.
Heart Beat results from a wave of depolarization
called cardiac impulses that originate from the tract called Nodal tissue. It
consists of Sinu-auricular Node (S-A) node. Inter auricular node, Bundle of his
(AV) bundle branches and purkinje fibers.